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IACUC: Searching for Alternatives to Painful Procedures Used on Research Animals: Home

This guides provides useful tips for preparing a literature search for alternatives to painful procedures

WHEN TO DO A SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES

A database search is required when your protocol involves USDA-covered species at Pain Categories D and E. You must conduct a literature search in at least two databases in order to demonstrate that:

  • the work is not unnecessarily duplicative of previously documented work
  • the fewest number of the lowest order of animals will be used to obtain valid results
  • alternatives to EACH potentially painful/distressful procedure proposed have been sought.

WHAT TO INCLUDE IN THE NARRATIVE

"When a database search is the primary means of meeting this requirement, the narrative should include:

  • the name(s) of the databases searched
  • the date the search was performed
  • the time period covered by the search
  • the search strategy (including scientifically relevant terminology) used"

USDA-APHIS Animal Care Policy Manual Policy #12

DATABASES

PubMed@Yale 

Ovid at Yale University and Affiliates ( includes, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, etc.)

Web of Science

SEARCHING FOR ALTERNATIVES: OTHER TOOLS

ALTBIB - Searches PubMed for alternatives to animal testing

ALTWEB - Alternatives to Animal Testing (Johns Hopkins)

FEDRIP -  Federal Research in Progress Database (EBSCO)

FEDRIP: Federal Research in Progress Database
FEDRIP: Federal Research in Progress Database
 
FEDRIP: Federal Research in Progress Database

LAMHDI - NIH National Center for Research Resources - Linking animal models to human disease--finding the best animal models for research

3R GUIDE - AWIC (Animal Welfare Information Center) and NORECOPA (Norwegian Reference Center)

ASK FOR HELP

School of Medicine:

Each department has a librarian who can help with your literature search: Medical Librarians by Department 

Kline Biology Tower:

Contact Lori Bronars for help with database searching.