Punctuation: is stripped during the query, whether you are using quotation marks or not. Therefore, including or not including hyphens in personal names, or dashes in subject headings, does not impact search results.
Diacritics: are supported but not necessary. For example, searching "Jean Francois Bory" will return the Jean-François Bory Papers.
Stemming: Archives at Yale automatically performs basic stemming on searches (e.g. searching for cats will also retrieve cat).
Wildcards: “Wildcard” symbols ? and * help retrieve a greater number of relevant results by searching for variant spellings and forms of the term concurrently.
- ? will be replaced by a single letter in, or at the end of, a search term (e.g. Searching for wom?n will find both women and woman. Searching archiv? will find both archive and archivy)
- * will be replaced by any number of letters (e.g. Searching for mission* will return results containing missions, missionary, missionaries, etc. Searching for migrat* will return migrate, migratory, migration, but not migrant.)
Searches are not case-sensitive.
Alternative to boolean operator NOT: precede a term by a hyphen to exclude it from the search (e.g. mission -China ; art -British).
Finding near terms: Archives at Yale does not support the boolean operator NEAR. However, to find terms within a specified number of words of one another, add a tilde (~) and a number after the search terms. (e.g. “maps Asia”~5 will return results where the term maps occurs within 5 words of the term Asia).