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BibTeX, natbib, biblatex: Managing Citations in LaTeX: Organizing Your Research

A short guide linking to documentation, resources for bibliographic citation styles, and other useful tools to use when citing sources using .bib files and associated packages.

Social Network Citing

While communication as a result of social networking hasn't quite become the norm in academia, it's being considered and used by some. Be prepared to properly cite these communications just as you would any other information. For more about this in APA Style (although you may need to make changes to adjust the format to your own citation style), read this post from the APA Style Blog.


EndNote, Zotero, RefWorks, ProCite, Reference Manager are all examples of Bibliographic Management Tools. These tools provide the capability to store and organize your research materials. You can export citations from databases and web sites, annotate, create bibliographies, and footnote from these tools. To learn more about these tools and to figure out which one is right for you and your research needs, visit the Wikipedia reference management comparison chart — it's the most up-to-date!

Yale Library offers workshops on how to use these tools. Check here for available dates and times.

Citation Style & Formats

Citation of Traditional & Online Materials

Journals, professors, and disciplines often have their own methods for formatting citations. The Geological Society of America (GSA) has a guide to citation styles. Other citation styles include the Chicago Manual of StylePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

Undergraduates: Ask your professor which citation style you should use. The most common ones for you are MLA, Chicago Manual of Style, or APA.

Graduate students: Different journals often have their own ways of managing citations. Information should be available on the citation style. If it isn't, E-mail your subject librarian and ask for help identifying how you should cite material for your submission. You can also talk to your adviser. We get these questions all the time.

Faculty: Undergraduates often know MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style the best. If they have questions about citing information properly, direct them to the Yale College Writing Center's guide to using sources or to Purdue's OWL resource. Make sure they know that they need to cite images and multimedia materials as well as journal articles and books (if they use these kinds of materials at all, most likely in presentations).

Data Citation

There is no one standard for data citation. Generally, when using a data source, see if there is a standard data use policy that provides guidance on citation practices (i.e., grant references, format, authorship). If no citation policy can be found, please familiarize yourself with common data citation practices as detailed in this guide from DataOne.

Bibliographic Management Tools

Science Research Support Librarian

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Kayleigh Bohemier
Please email me or use the Schedule Appointment button. Appointments will happen using Zoom or other videoconferencing software. Zoom has a phone option for those who need to call in. Depending on current pandemic restrictions and library policy, an in-person option may be available in the scheduler.

My default ONSITE days are Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday. I am OFFSITE most Mondays and Thursdays.


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