It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
The four species of Sukkot, the Festival of Booths, are the etrog (citron), palm, myrtle, and willow. The Jewish people are commanded to bind the four species together and wave them in the Sukkah, a temporary booth constructed for use during the seven-day-long festival of Sukkot. In 69 C.E., during the fourth year of the great Jewish revolt against Rome, the rebels minted a new coin which depicted the Four Species. The Four Species became a prominent motif on coins minted that year and appeared in several varations; for example, an etrog between two bound lulavim, a lulav between two etrogim, and more. Less than seventy years later, the Bar Kokhba rebellion also minted coins which featured the Four Species.
Bar Kokhba silver shekel/tetradrachm. Obverse: Jewish Temple façade. Reverse: Lulav.
How A Chinese Fruit Became a Jewish Symbol by David Z. Moster
See: pp. 1–10, 49–125.
Every year before the holiday of Sukkot, Jews all around the world purchase an etrog—a lemon-like fruit—to participate in the holiday ritual. In this book, David Z. Moster tracks the etrog from its evolutionary home in Yunnan, China, to the lands of India, Iran, and finally Israel, where it became integral to the Jewish celebration of Sukkot during the Second Temple period. Moster explains what Sukkot was like before and after the arrival of the etrog, and why the etrog’s identification as the “choice tree fruit” of Leviticus 23:40 was by no means predetermined. He also demonstrates that once the fruit became associated with the holiday of Sukkot, it began to appear everywhere in Jewish art during the Roman and Byzantine periods, and eventually became a symbol for all the fruits of the land, and perhaps even the Jewish people as a whole.
Shlomo: Studies in Epigraphy, Iconography, History and Archaeology in Honor of Shlomo Moussaieff by Robert Deutsch
See: Arie Kindler, “Lulav and Ethrog as Symbols of Jewish Identity,” pp. 139–145.
19 essays in honor of a major collector of Near Eastern antiquities. Contributors include Y. Avishur, P. Artzi, J. Klein, D. Elgavish, D. Barag, R. Deutsch, M. Geller, T. Kwasman, M. Heide, M. Heltzer, A. Kindler, W. G. Lambert, A. Lemaire, D. Levene, E. Lipinski, M. Lubetski, A. M. Maeir, B. Porten, A. Yardeni, B. and M. Salvini, R. Zadok, and I. Ziffer.
From Dura to Sepphoris by Lee I. Levine (Editor); Zeev Weiss (Editor)