Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Yale Library COVID-19 updates.

Jewish Apocalyptic Literature: 1 Enoch

Specific Approaches, Passages, and Themes


Book of Enoch

The Book of Enoch, written during the second century B.C.E., is one of the most important non-canonical pseudepigraphical works. Its only complete extant version is an Ethiopic translation of a Greek translation made in Palestine from the original Hebrew or Aramaic. Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah and seventh patriarch in the book of Genesis, is one of the two people in the Bible taken up to heaven without dying (the other being Elijah) and the subject of abundant apocalyptic literature. At first revered only for his piety, he was later believed to be the recipient of secret knowledge from God, which manifests in the Book of Enoch's concepts of heaven and hell, angels and demons, the messiah, the resurrection, a final judgment, and a heavenly kingdom on Earth.

General Resources

Translations and Commentaries