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Written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, the scrolls have transformed our understanding of the Hebrew Bible, early Judaism and the origins of Christianity. This is a fully revised edition of the classic translation by Geza Vermes, the world's leading Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. It is now enhanced by much previously unpublished material and a new preface, and also contains a scroll catalogue and an index of Qumran texts.
The complete, authoritative study guide to one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of all time--the Dead Sea Scrolls. This indispensable two-volume compendium of the Dead Sea Scrolls contains newly edited English translations and summaries of all the biblical and nonbiblical scrolls found at Qumran. Designed as a practical reference tool to facilitate study of the Scrolls, these volumes will be an essential addition to the library of anyone interested in the Dead Sea Scrolls--from serious scholars to general readers seeking reliable translations of these invaluable ancient texts.
The second part of a 2-volume work, this is a practical reference tool to facilitate access to the Qumran collection of the Dead Sea Scrolls. It contains newly edited Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions and English translations of the non-biblical scrolls on facing pages, arranged by serial number from Cave 1 to Cave 11. In addition, it offers a summary of the contents of the biblical scrolls from Qumran. Each Q-number is provided with a heading which contains the essential information on the text and selected bibliographical references. Although unidentified and unclassified fragments have been omitted, and no snippets of manuscripts have been reproduced, this edition aims to be complete for the non-biblical scrolls.
How do the halakhic texts from Qumran as well as those Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls, which attest to legal texts of the Hebrew Bible, lead to a new interpretation and understanding of the Pentateuchal law collections and other legal texts in the Hebrew Bible, and how do they help to illuminate the reception history of the Torah? These are the central questions of this book. The book consists of three parts: Part I: The Legal Texts from Qumran and the Hebrew Bible, Part II: The Legal Texts from Qumran and Second Temple Judaism and Part III: The Legal Texts from Qumran and Rabbinic Judaism.
This collection of studies is published in honor of Professor James A. Sanders, a leading scholar in the fields of the canon of Scripture, textual criticism, and the relationship of the two Testaments. Contributors include leading scholars in these and related fields of study. The studies investigate in what ways the early sacred tradition was interpreted and how this tradition takes new shape in the Jewish and Christian communities of faith. Included are studies of Jesus understanding of Scripture, Paul's interpretation of Scripture, and the ways in which Scripture was interpreted by the Rabbis.
The essays in this highly readable volume are dedicated to John Strugnell, the eminent theologian. Contents: "New Qumran Readings for Genesis One," by James R. Davila; "Early Emendations of the Scribes: The Tiqqun Sopherim in Zechariah 2:12," by Russell Fuller; "Recensional Differences between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint of Proverbs," by Emanual Tov, among others.
In Reading and Re-reading Scripture at Qumran, Moshe J. Bernstein gathers over three decades worth of his essays on biblical interpretation in the Dead Sea Scrolls. They address the Genesis Apocryphon and 4Q252, as well various legal texts and pesharim.
This volume gives important examples as to how the early texts attested in the Dead Sea Scrolls help to better understand individual biblical books and as to how the later texts among them illustrate Jewish life and law when the canon of the Hebrew Bible evolved.
The author's influential articles on the Origins of the Qumran Community (the co-called "Groningen Hypothesis") and on Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls are now collected in one volume, including translations of essays that were written in Spanish and French.
This collection of essays by Florentino García Martínez, includes studies on the interpretation of biblical texts in the Scrolls, priestly functions in a community without temple, Messianism, magic, wisdom, sonship, and the "other" in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
This collection of essays is a tribute to Rachel Elior's decades of teaching, scholarship and mentoring. If a Festschrift reflects the individuality of the honoree, then this volume offers insights into the scope of Rachel Elior's interests and scholarly achievements in the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jewish apocalypticism, magic, and mysticism from the Second Temple period to the later rabbinic and Hekhalot developments. The majority of articles included in the volume deal with Jewish and Christian apocalyptic and mystical texts constituting the core of experiential dimension of these religious traditions.
Since the photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls were released in 1992, there has been an explosion of interest in them. This volume explores the issue of apocalypticism in the Scrolls; how notions of the 'end,' Messianic expectation, and eternal life affected the Dead Sea sect, influenced Judaism, and filtered into Christianity. Collins' volume provides a valuable and accessible introduction to the interpretation of the Scrolls, which is an informative addition to the series examining the major themes of the Scroll texts.
The nature and origin of Jewish mysticism is a controversial subject. This volume explores the subject by examining both the Hebrew and Aramaic tradition (Dead Sea Scrolls, 1 Enoch) and the Greek philosophical tradition (Philo) and also examines the Christian transformation of Jewish mysticism in Paul and Revelation. It provides for a nuanced treatment that differentiates different strands of thought that may be considered mystical. The Hebrew tradition is mythical in nature and concerned with various ways of being in the presence of God. The Greek tradition allows for a greater degree of unification and participation in the divine. The New Testament texts are generally closer to the Greek tradition, although Greek philosophy would have a huge effect on later Christian mysticism. The book is intended for scholars and advanced students of ancient Judaism and early Christianity.
The volume contains the papers read at the 51st Colloquium Biblicum Lovaniense (July 31 - August 2, 2002) dedicated to the study of the theme of Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in the biblical tradition in general. The "Main papers" and some of the "Offered papers" have been thematically grouped in four parts. Part I comprises four articles dealing with the relationship between wisdom and apocalypticism in the Scrolls compared to the biblical tradition. Part II includes five papers which focus on specific wisdom compositions from Qumran, such as 1Q/4QMysteries, 4QInstruction, 4QTime of Righteousness, or the "Tractate of the Two Spirits" from the Rule of the Community. The nine contributions of Part III analyse different aspects of biblical Wisdom compositions (in Qohelet, Sirach, and the Wisdom of Solomon) or of apocalyptic writings (in 1 Enoch and 4 Ezra) in the light of the Qumran Wisdom texts. Part IV groups six studies on several aspects of the Wisdom compositions from Qumran (messianic ideas, ecstatic worship, the beatitudes, or the fate of the righteous) which are directly relevant for the study of the New Testament.
This book provides a comparative traditio-historical study of the full range of Qumran texts and recensions now available and of New Testament texts with regard to ideas about the final age, resurrection, apocalypticism, and messianism.
This series presents an introduction, critical text, and literal English translations of all Dead Sea Scrolls which are not copies of books in the Hebrew Bible. The second volume contains improved Hebrew texts and literal translations of CD with selected fragments of the Damascus Document from Cave 4, 5 and 6; also included are 1 QM, with the fragments of the War Scroll from Caves 1 and 4. The series is prepared with the text on the left page and the translation on the right. Critical notes help the scholar understand the text, variants, philological subtleties, and translation. Other documents relating to rules are also contained in the second volume.
The author surveys previous research, with particular emphasis on the syntheses of H. Stegemann and J. Murphy-O'Connor. A more comprehensive view of the redaction and ideology of the document is offered, leading to the conclusion that it is originally a product of a community which traced its origins to the Babylonian exile. The extant Cairo manuscripts represent a Qumran recension, confirming the opinion of many scholars that the Qumran community originated as a splinter movement from an earlier and larger community. The Hebrew text and a translation are provided.
The Zadokite Documents are much discussed, translated, commented upon, and, in some cases, reprinted. The present edition is the result of a new collection of manuscripts themselves, the text being as close as possible a reproduction as possible.
This book features a meticulous transcription by Elisha Qimron, of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer-Sheva, of the two copies of the Damascus Document from the Cairo Genizah, now in the Cambridge University Library. Remarkable photographs of the manuscripts, taken by G. D. Bye, head of the library’s photography department, accompany Qimron’s transcription on facing pages. The painstaking transcription includes even the spacing of the original, while notes provide variations contained in the eight fragmentary copies from Qumran as well as Qimron’s suggestions to correct the readings in the genizah manuscripts. To make his transcription, Qimron studied not only these pellucid photographs but also the original manuscripts—in both ordinary and ultraviolet light.
This composite edition of the Damascus Document and scrolls from Khirbet Qumran (with translation and commentary) presents a new understanding of the relationship of these texts, time and purpose; shedding additional light on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Covenant in Judaism and Paul deals with biblical and intertestamental uses of covenant and related rituals, challenging the view that baptism replaces circumcision, since baptism is entry into the new covenant, and showing that ritual boundaries are replaced or redefined since identity has changed. The investigation uses social categories, identity as a term that offers an explanation for a groups self-understanding and boundary as a term for entry rite of affirmation marker. Part A looks at the Old Testament background to aspects of the covenant. Part B examines covenant identity and rituals in Palestinian Judaism as featured in Jubilees, the Temple Scroll, the Damascus Document, and the Community Rule. It includes a brief analysis of the baptism administered by John the Baptist. Part C analyses Paul's views on covenant, circumcision, and baptism against this background.
This volume provides a detailed analysis of the Laws of the Damascus Document which fully incorporates the new cave 4 evidence. The author offers a close reading of the text and identifies a number of literary strata as well as a considerable amount of redactional activity.
This volume is concerned with tracing the different stages in the formation of the Qumran Community Rule in the light of the material from Cave 4 that has only recently become available. The first part of this ground-breaking work is devoted to determining the differences between the manuscripts of the Community Rule found in Caves 1, 4 and 5. The second part deals with the relationship between the various versions of the Community Rule. The third part aims at creating an overall picture of the literary development of this document and includes a discussion of the different elements within it as well as a comparison of the parallel passages, which reflect different stages in the redaction of the document.
Tukasi explores the theme of the determinism as articulated in the Rule of the Community and the Fourth Gospel with the aim of uncovering the relevance of petitionary prayer within the framework of the determinism of each book.
Papers presented at the IOQS meeting in Ljubljana "Qumran Cave 1 Revisited: Reconsidering the Cave 1 Texts Sixty Years after Their Discovery," on the two Isaiah scrolls, the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Thanksgivings Scroll, and the Genesis Apocryphon.
Ever since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Community Rule has been at the forefront of the scholarly imagination and is often considered a direct channel to life at Khirbet Qumran--an ancient version of 'reality TV.' Over the course of the last fifteen years, scholars have increasingly come to recognize the significance of the Scrolls as a rich text world from a period when texts, traditions, and interpretation laid the foundations of Western civilisation. The studies by Charlotte Hempel gathered in this volume deal with several core Rule texts from Qumran, especially with the Community Rule (S), the Rule of the Congregation (1QSa), the Damascus Document (D), and 4Q265 (Miscellaneous Rules). The author uncovers a complex network of literary and more murkily preserved social relationships. She further investigates the Rule literature within the context of wisdom, law, and the scribal milieu behind the emerging scriptures.
This study is an attempt to analyse IQM in order to show its structure and literary history. Davies stresses that the purpose of this work is to reveal characteristics of the material and the major questions which these raise than to offer a full account of the origin and development of IQM. The result achieved by this study may serve as one foundation upon which a sound approach to the wider questions of Qumran history and theology may be built.
This re-examination of the War Scroll (1QM) suggests it is a Hellenistic composition describing an eschatological, two-stage, conquest of the world, subsequently updated in order to fit the new historical realities faced by the Qumran sectarians under Roman rule.
This volume of collected essays reflects on various aspects of language, text, and interpretations of war and peace in the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Second Temple Jewish literature, with special close attention set on the Qumran War Scroll.
The War Scroll is a very important piece of literature in our understanding of the concepts of divine justice and retribution held by the Jewish community of the Essenes and the Qumran Community in the time of Jewish persecution by Rome. The scroll reflects a belief that in the end times evil would be eradicated by the Power of God and his Sons of Light. The Qumran community saw itself as a righteous light in the world, solidly on the side of good. As God's army, they would fight evil in the world, and with God's help, through his agent, Michael the Archangel, they would win the battle against the Sons of Darkness and bring back righteousness and peace. The text is replete with parallel biblical and apocryphal verses, commentary, and references to numerical symbolism, all intended to lead the reader into an appreciation and understanding of the text.
In the Hebrew Bible, war is a prominent topic which is dealt with in both legal and narrative texts. So far, the interplay between the two areas has received only little attention. This volume explores the impact of biblical war legislation on war accounts in the Hebrew Bible and in Early Jewish Literature. It provides case studies which show the importance of the topic and shed new light on redaction- and reception-historical developments.
The introduction, translation and commentary on the Temple Scroll by Johann Maier has been thoroughly revised and updated by the author for its English edition, taking account of improvements in readings, and, among other recent secondary literature, the English translation of Yadin's edition, to which cross-references are given. Students of Second Temple Judaism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls in particular, will at last have a convenient English edition of this most important document from Qumran.
Already before its publication, it was clear that the Temple Scroll represented a major contribution to the history of Jewish law in Late Antiquity. The present volume brings together the author's studies on this important scroll. He has sought to uncover the hermeneutics of the Zadokite/Sadducean legal system and to compare and contrast it with other texts of its own type as well as with those in rabbinic literature preserving the Pharisaic-rabbinic approach.
That the Temple Scroll is re-written Torah is recognised, but discussion of how the Torah is used has been hampered by absence of detailed analysis of the Scroll. This volume addresses this lack by careful examination of major portions of the Scroll. Representative portions of each division of the Scroll are analyzed, first to establish precisely which biblical texts are used, and then to show how these texts are placed in relation to each other. From this study, a specific editorial methodology is uncovered. This book provides data essential not only to further the discussion on the exegetical methodology of this Scroll, but also for insight into the transition from inner-biblical exegesis to rabbinic commentary.
The Temple Scroll, the last of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1967, contains two phenomena that are at variance with the Jewish tradition. Professor Jacobs presents a thorough study of ligature writing or "joined letters" and the insertion of both words and phrases between the lines of the text in The Biblical Masorah and the Temple Scroll.
Through the second study of 11QT, Columns 29:3b47:18, the so called Temple Source is completely analysed. The study shows that among biblical materials the book of Leviticus has had the broadest influence on this section of the scroll. This may indicate a priestly hand in its composition. Another important result is the summary of the Hebrew text of Columns 29:3b-47:18. This result is a balanced evaluation of the best readings. It includes a number of alternative suggestions.
A study of one of the Qumran texts, examining its characteristics and authorship. The author concludes that the Temple Scroll was an eschatalogical law book, composed around 150 BC by `The Teacher of Righteousness' and not a product of the Qumran community.
This volume consists of nineteen essays, written by internationally renowned scholars such as George Brooke, John Collins, Heinz-Josef Fabry, André Lemaire, Julio Trebolle, Emanuel Tov, James VanderKam and others, presented to Émile Puech, palaeographer and Dead Sea Scrolls specialist, on the occasion of his 65th birthday. All contributions deal with aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including fundamental essays on 4QMMT by Steudel, Kratz and Berthelot, and two papers on resurrection and afterlife. Other essays are concerned with textual criticism and the Hebrew Bible, the Astronomical Enoch, the Admonitions of Qahat, 4QInstruction, and Isaac in the Scrolls. This volume will be indispensable for scholars of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and of interest for scholars of Bible and Second Temple Judaism.
This book focuses on the third section of one of the most important documents from the Qumran library, the epilogue of 4QMMT. Although the primary focus is on the epilogue, the results of this investigation shed light on 4QMMT as a whole.
In this Very Short Introduction, Timothy Lim discusses the cultural significance of Dead Sea Scrolls finds, and the religious, political and legal controversies during the seventy years of study since the discovery. He also looks at the contribution the Scrolls have made to our understanding of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible, and the origins of early Christianity. Exploring the most recent scholarly discussions on the archaeology of Khirbet Qumran, and the study of the biblical texts, the canon, and the history of the Second Temple Period, he considers what the scrolls reveal about sectarianism in early Judaism. Was the archaeological site of Qumran a centre of monastic life, a fortress, a villa, or a pottery factory? Why were some of their biblical texts so different from the ones that we read today? Did they have "a Bible"? Who were the Essenes and why did they think that humanity is to be divided between "the sons of light" and those in darkness? And, finally, do the Scrolls reflect the teachings of the earliest followers of Jesus?
The Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls seeks to probe the main disputed issues in the study of the Scrolls. Lively debate continues over the archaeology and history of the site, the nature and identity of the sect, and itsrelation to the broader world of Second Temple Judaism and to later Jewish and Christian tradition. It is the Handbook's intention here to reflect on diverse opinions and viewpoints, highlight the points of disagreement, and point to promising directions for future research.
This thoroughly revised and updated version of The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective is useful as a textbook for courses in Dead Sea Scrolls, the Hebrew Bible, or the New Testament. It has been a standard work in the field for the past thirty years.
John Collins tells the story of the bitter conflicts that have swirled around the scrolls since their startling discovery and sheds light on their true significance for Jewish and Christian history. He offers insight into debates over whether the Essenes were an authentic Jewish sect and explains why such questions are critical to our understanding of ancient Judaism and to Jewish identity. Furthermore, Collins explores whether the scrolls were indeed the property of an isolated, quasi-monastic community living at Qumran, or whether they more broadly reflect the Judaism of their time.
This timely book explores the discovery and dating of the scrolls; their relationship to the Hebrew Bible, the Apocrypha, and the New Testament; their messianic and apocalyptic messages; the identity, nature, and theology of the Qumran community; the non-biblical scrolls; and controversies surrounding the scrolls. This comprehensive, up-to-date guide is the definitive introduction to all aspects of the scrolls, including their teachings, the community that created them, the world of Judaism, the origins of Christianity, our understanding of Jesus and the New Testament. Featuring photos of the original texts, the sites, and the scholars who deciphered them, and including illustrative passages from the scrolls, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls presents the most complete and accurate scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls available today.
The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment contains a set of cutting-edge articles on topics that are archeological, historical, literary, sociological, or theological in character. The papers were written by an international group of scholars who are actively engaged in the scrolls research today and are able to incorporate all of the Qumran evidence into their studies.
These three volumes, the very best of critical scholarship, demonstrate in detail how the scrolls have revolutionized our knowledge of the text of the Bible, the character of Second Temple Judaism, and the Jewish beginnings of Christianity.
A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature starts by explaining the conventional system of abbreviations for the Scrolls. Then it helpfully lists specifically where readers can find each of the Scrolls and fragmentary texts from the eleven caves of Qumran and all the related sites, using the officially assigned numbers of the text. Fitzmyer supplies information on study tools helpful for scholars -- concordances, dictionaries, translations, outlines of longer texts, and more -- and briefly indicates electronic resources for the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Dead Sea Scrolls expert Lawrence H. Schiffman shifts attention away from the sensationalism surrounding who has control of the scrolls by focusing on how these texts shed light on the history of Judaism and early Christianity.
Beyond the Qumran Community reaches a surprising conclusion: the sect described in the Dead Sea Scrolls developed later than has usually been supposed and was never confined to the site of Qumran. Collins deconstructs the Qumran community and shows that the sectarian documents actually come from a text spread throughout the land. He examines the Community Rule, or Yahad, and considers the Teacher of Righteousness, a pivotal figure in the Essene movement. After examining the available evidence, Collins concludes that it is, in fact, overwhelmingly likely that the site of Qumran housed merely a single settlement of a very widespread movement.
This book, written jointly by two distinguished Qumran scholars, attempts to provide answers to some important questions that have been discussed recently in media reports on the Dead Sea Scrolls, such as: have certain manuscripts been suppressed?; do the manuscripts question substantial aspects of the Jewish and Christian traditions?; do the roots of Early Christianity derive from the Essene movement?; and more.This volume offers solid and up-to-date information on the literary heritage, the social organization and the religious beliefs of the Qumran community and its links with Early Christianity. It gives the reader an opportunity to look behind the scenes of the research of the Dead Sea texts and the ongoing scholarly debate on the origins of the Essene movement and the Qumran sect.
In this accessible and illuminating work, one of the world's foremost Dead Sea Scrolls scholars--and one of the first women to actually see the documents--reflects on the most significant learnings about these ancient documents of faith.
While retaining the format, style, and aims of the first edition, the second edition of The Dead Sea Scrolls Today takes into account the full publication of the texts from the caves and the post-1994 debates about the Qumran site, and it contains an additional section regarding information that the Scrolls provide about Second Temple Judaism and the groups prominent at the time. Further, VanderKam has enlarged the bibliographies throughout and changed the phrasing in many places. Finally, quotations of the Scrolls are from the fifth edition of Geza Vermes's translation, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (Penguin, 1997).
Tools for Our Work introduces readers to a wide range of established and experimental treatments of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including paleography, archaeology, manuscript analysis, and a variety of literary, historical, and social scientific approaches. Written by experts in Dead Sea Scrolls studies, these essays -- while each able to stand on their own as state-of-the-field discussions -- together provide a vibrant intersectional picture of scrolls studies on the cusp of its seventh decade.
This volume, a tribute to John J. Collins by his friends, colleagues, and students, includes essays on the wide range of interests that have occupied John Collins's distinguished career. Topics range from the ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Second Temple Judaism and beyond into early Christianity and rabbinic Judaism. The contributions deal with issues of text and interpretation, history and historiography, philology and archaeology, and more. The breadth of the volume is matched only by the breadth of John Collins's own work.
The contributors of the present volume open up new fields that might stimulate further reflection on issues such as: the origin of Qumran's dualism; the literary growth of the passages in question; and the social/ideological setting of the dualistic passages within the Qumran Library. The Library of Second Temple Studies is a premier book series that offers cutting-edge work for a readership of scholars, teachers, postgraduate students and advanced undergraduates in the field of Second Temple studies. All the many and diverse aspects of Second Temple study are represented and promoted, including innovative work from historical perspectives, studies using social-scientific and literary theory, and developing theological, cultural and contextual approaches.
From popular Old Testament scholar John S. Bergsma comes an illuminating text that reveals a Jewish community predating Christianity, whose existence, beliefs, and practices have long been ignored by scholars and the public for social and political reasons: the Essenes. Bergsma, one of only a handful of American scholars who has had access to the original Dead Sea manuscripts, reveals how this radical pre-Christian Jewish religious community directly influenced the beliefs and early practices of early Christianity. This connection offers new information on how early Christians lived their lives, worshiped, and eventually went on to influence the Roman Empire. Bergsma also looks to Hebrew Scriptures and Jewish tradition to frame a story of how a simple Jewish peasant could go on to found a religion and a philosophy that still resonates 2,000 years later. In this enlightening read, Dr. Bergsma demonstrates how the Dead Sea Scrolls--the world's greatest modern archaeological discovery--can deepen our appreciation of Scripture and strengthen our understanding of faith.
Combining the most recent work on the Scrolls from Canada, England, Germany, Italy, Israel, and the United States, Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls presents the definitive international and inter-confessional consensus on what these controversial documents have to say, and on how they have revolutionized our understanding of the founder of Christianity, Jesus of Nazareth. With the keen eye of acknowledged experts, Charlesworth and his colleagues give us an accessible and intriguing view that is free from parochial bias. The result is a cornucopia of discussion on fascinating topics drawn from the very latest research on the Scrolls and the Qumran Essene community credited with writing them. Some of the material examined in this volume includes what the Scrolls have to say about the historical Jesus, crucifixion in ancient Palestine, the existence of an Essene quarter in Jerusalem, and the discovery of a "pre-Christian" messiah martyr cult. Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls gets to the heart of the matter of why these documents are so important.
This work challenges the established interpretations of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the traditional views of the origins of Christianity. This book goes back to Qumran for further exploration of Christianity's formative years. Included in the book are new translations of the Qumran documents, that until now have only been available to scholars, that present a more accurate view of the times. A picture of a nationalistic, xenophobic, militant Messianic Movement in Palestine during the first century AD is presented, which is very different from the current way Christianity is viewed. Archaeology, palaeography and carbon-14 dating are rigorously criticised, and in the process, the book challenges establishment conceptions and reveals startling information about the first Christians, the Righteous Teacher, and the apocalyptic documents of the time.
The 16 contributions of experts both in the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and on the study of the New Testament analyze the relationship among the two corpora. Some of the studies propose a general understanding of the relationship, other apply it to concrete topics or texts.
This volume brings together studies by some of the best specialists of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Pauline literature. The authors explore the relationships between these two corpora in order to explain them more accurately and explain better the diffusion, transformations and reconfiguration of Jewish traditions into Mediterranean Judaism.
Was Jesus of Nazareth a real historical person or a fictional character in a religious legend? What do the Dead Sea Scrolls reveal about the origins of Christianity? Has there been a conspiracy to suppress information in the Scrolls that contradicts traditional church teaching? John Allegro addresses these and many other intriguing questions in this fascinating account of what may be the most significant archaeological discovery of the twentieth century. As one of the original scholars entrusted with the task of deciphering these ancient documents, Allegro worked on some of the most important texts, including the Biblical commentaries.
Why is there such an ethical emphasis in Jesus gospel proclamation? This work finds the answer in Jesus meeting his audience within their own conceptual realms and then expanding those realms to point to the nature of his salvation.The bulk of this work investigates the soteriology of Second Temple Judaism, especially of the Qumran Scrolls. The apocalyptic lesson was the demand of a greater covenantal obedience, held in tension with God s grace, a demand met through sectarian revelation and involving a somewhat diverse messianism. Within these conceptions, Jesus affirms that salvation is indeed for the righteous, but as defined through himself as the unique Messiah.This work is particularly useful regarding the Jesus Paul debate, for it provides a diachronic solution grounded in the cultural-historical milieu of the times.
Tukasi explores the theme of the determinism as articulated in the Rule of the Community and the Fourth Gospel with the aim of uncovering the relevance of petitionary prayer within the framework of the determinism of each book.
In a work that challenges notions that have dominated New Testament scholarship for more than a hundred years, Israel Knohl gives startling evidence for a messianic precursor to Jesus who is described as the "Suffering Servant" in recently published fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Messiah before Jesus clarifies many formerly incomprehensible aspects of Jesus' life and confirms the story in the New Testament about his messianic awareness. The book shows that, around the time of Jesus' birth, there came into being a conception of "catastrophic" messianism in which the suffering, humiliation, and death of the messiah were regarded as an integral part of the redemptive process.
James was a vegetarian, wore only linen clothing, bathed daily at dawn in cold water, and was a life-long Nazirite. In this profound and provocative work of scholarly detection, eminent biblical scholar Robert Eisenman introduces a startling theory about the identity of James—the brother of Jesus, who was almost entirely marginalized in the New Testament.
Rosenberg looks to the Qumran scrolls for clues to the relationship of the Essenes or Sadoqites to the early Christians. He finds that many of their beliefs, including the expectation of a Moreh Sedeq or Correct Teacher, were taken on by the early Christians and shaped in the early days of the Church. By comparing Qumran texts with New Testament materials, Rosenberg shows that, in Christian teaching, Jesus plays the part of the three separate persons who, according to the Sadoqites, were supposed to represent and embody sedeq or divine justice. This book will be of interest to all who are concerned with Judaism and the evolution of Christianity.
The 13 papers comprising this volume represent the fruits of the first Orion Center Symposium devoted to the comparison of the Dead Sea and early Christian texts. The authors reject the older paradigm which configured the similarities between Qumran and early Christian literature as evidence of influence from one upon the other. They raise fresh methodological possibilities by asking how insights from each of these two corpora illuminate the other, and by considering them as parallel evidence for broader currents of Second Temple Judaism. Topics addressed include specific exegetical and legal comparisons; prophecy, demonology, and messianism; the development of canon and the rise of commentary; and possible connections between the Gospel of John and the Dead Sea Scrolls.
This examination of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Letters of Paul finds that, in both these bodies of literature, religious self-understanding is expressed in terms of the concept of purity so important to primitive religion and earlier Judaism. Dr Newton contradicts the view held by most scholars that the traditional Jewish attitude to purity had no place in Christianity. By using the concept of purity not unlike that at Qumran or of Pharisaic and Rabbinic Judaism, Paul could elucidate his views on, among other things, the nature of the Church, the divine presence, the basis of ethical behaviour and the significance of the death of Jesus.
Hasselbalch asserts that current theories about the social background of Thanksgiving Hymns are unable to explain its heterogeneous character. Instead the author suggests a reading strategy that leaves presumptions about the underlying social contexts aside to instead consider the collection's hybridity as a clue to understanding the collection as a whole. Hasselbalch applies Systemic Functional Linguistics to four Hodayot compositions which show signs of hybridity. Analysis reveals that the speaker in some of the so-called leader hymns as well as in compositions not normally designated leader hymns appears to have the role of a mediator in the agency of God-a feature that distinguishes the hodayot from biblical psalms. This characteristic can be seen as a common denominator that unifies the collection.
This book examines the collection of prayers known as the Qumran Hodayot (= Thanksgiving Hymns) in light of ancient visionary traditions, new developments in neuropsychology, and post-structuralist understandings of the embodied subject. The thesis of this book is that the ritualized reading of reports describing visionary experiences written in the first person "I" had the potential to create within the ancient reader the subjectivity of a visionary which can then predispose him to have a religious experience. This study examines how references to the body and the strategic arousal of emotions could have functioned within a practice of performative reading to engender a religious experience of ascent. In so doing, this book offers new interdisciplinary insights into meditative ritual reading as a religious practice for transformation in antiquity.
This study identifies and analyses the scriptural allusions in five selected Thanksgiving Hymns from Qumran. It offers new reader-orientated insights into how these poems and others like them may be interpreted. It includes an extensive methodological chapter.
The last major volume of articles devoted to the topic of prayer and poetry in the Dead Sea Scrolls comprised a collection of articles presented at a conference in the year 2000 (Liturgical Perspectives: Prayer and Poetry in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls). This collection reflects the state of research in the field broadly and on specific prayers and poetic texts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls; it also offers new insights into topics on which Eileen Schuller has written extensively.
In Adam's Dust and Adam's Glory, Nicholas A. Meyer challenges the scholarly reconstruction of a traditional theological framework of creation, fall, and restoration in order to comprehend the pessimistic anthropologies of the Hodayot and the letters of Paul. Meyer argues that too little notice has been paid to the fact that this literature problematizes ordinary humanity by way of original humanity--its sexuality, its earthly physicality, its spiritual-moral frailty--and that these texts look not for the restoration of human nature as determined in creation, but rather for its transformation. Setting aside the traditional threefold framework, the author offers an innovative and comprehensive reading of the use of traditions of anthropogony, including the glory of Adam and the image of God, in this literature.
In 68 CE, devout Jews left more than one thousand handwritten documents in caves northwest of the Dead Sea. The cave that most defined the beliefs and hopes of these Jews is Cave I. In it were placed many manuscripts, including two copies of the Qumran Psalter or Thanksgiving Hymns. In 1947, Bedouin shepherds found Cave I and retrieved scrolls, including a copy of the Qumran Psalter. It proves Jews created new psalms to complement the Davidic Psalter (the Psalms usually attributed to David). We learn for the first time how Jews prior to Hillel and Jesus imagined the universe, articulated unworthiness, and despite suffering were devoted to God's covenant.
To make the significant wisdom of 4QInstruction more widely available, this volume offers a critical edition, translation, and commentary on its main fragments. It examines particular texts of 4QInstruction as well as broader issues, including its date, genre, main themes, and place in Second Temple Judaism. Finally, in order to contextualize this pivotal work, 4QInstruction's relationship to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions is also explored.
This volume is devoted to 4QInstruction, the last lengthy text of the Dead Sea Scrolls to be officially published. The central concern of this study is how this composition should be understood in relation to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions. Features of 4QInstruction that are examined include its appeal to revelation, its presentation of poverty, and its eschatology. The documents relationship to both 1 Enoch and the Dead Sea sect is also discussed.This study will prove useful to anyone interested in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the reception of the Jewish wisdom tradition in the Second Temple period, and apocalypticism.
The papers in this volume were originally read at the Sixth International Orion Symposium. The primary focus of the volume is on the wisdom texts from Qumran that have been fully edited only in recent years, especially 1Q/4QMysteries and 4QInstruction. Prior to the discovery of the Scrolls, our knowledge of wisdom literature in the Second Temple period was limited to contemporary biblical books, apocryphal works, and pseudepigraphical writings. These recently published compositions now allow for a more nuanced picture of wisdom literature and its impact on and interaction with other genres. In addition to shedding light on the world of their authors, these texts illustrate how biblical wisdom was reused in new contexts, and provide a missing link between earlier and later sapiential compositions.
In 4QInstruction: Divisions and Hierarchies, Benjamin Wold challenges the interpretation of 4QInstruction as a deterministic and dualistic composition. In a re-examination of key fragments he offers new reconstructions and translations that indicate 4QInstruction envisaged wisdom available to all humanity, divisions among humankind and communities as the result of individual adherence to wisdom, and a hierarchy of authority as a result of individual merit.
This study provides background on wisdom forms, the key Qumran sectarian texts, and wisdom studies related to the Dead Sea Scrolls. 4QInstruction includes poetic discourses, hymnic material, and short wisdom sayings and admonitions. A major focus is placed on the admonitions, which are discussed in terms of their structure, wisdom forms, and setting. The admonitions are expressed in biblical wisdom forms, showing a familiarity with and acceptance of traditional Hebrew wisdom, including a focus on traditional themes. Yet, when read from the sectarian perspective, 4QInstruction reinforces the guidelines and theology of the key Dead Sea Scroll documents.
This volume considers a major shift among Jewish sages during the Second Temple period, from an earthly to an otherworldly focus. It compares the perspectives of figures like Qoheleth and Ben Sira with the eschatological vision of 4QInstruction.
As the first comparative study of Colossians and 1 Peter, the book fills a lacuna by exploring each author's understanding of the new existence and the means to righteous living. If the epistles end up offering almost identical paraenesis, why do they have such distinctive theological patterns of thought? The conventional starting point in Colossian and 1 Peter studies centers on the recipients' needs. Much has been learned from these investigations and is kept in view. However, the extent to which each epistle's theology reflects an underlying pattern of ideas within each author's worldview is less well understood. Setting the author's views in the context of the literature of early Judaism throws fresh light on his thought-world and understanding of the new existence and moral enablement.