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HSHM 436/HIST 195J: Health and Incarceration in U.S. History : Home

Guide created for Dr. Miriam Rich's course, Health and Incarceration in U.S. History

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This research guide provides a starting point for students in Dr. Miriam Rich's course Health and Incarceration in U.S. History.  For any research questions, please email Melissa Grafe using the link in the box on the right.

This guide will:

  • Help identify materials related to the intersection of health and incarceration.
  • Describe search strategies for finding primary and secondary sources.
  • Provide links to online primary and secondary sources.

General resources

Background sources (or “reference” works) are great places to start. Reference works include scholarly encyclopedias, handbooks, scholarly “companions," and similar sources that contain essays providing background information on a topic and overviews of the relevant scholarship. Citations to the secondary literature will always be included, and often so too will citations to primary sources.  Here are some of these recommended resources:

Oxford Bibliographies

Many annotated bibliographies in a variety of fields, often with citations to both primary and secondary sources.

There are annotated bibliographies on "Gender and Incarceration," "Public Health Effects of Incarceration," "The Aging Prison Population," and more, but be sure to search the whole database too, as you'll also often find relevant articles in other modules.

Oxford Handbooks

A useful collection of many handbooks, each with numerous articles. Browse and search for single chapters or whole books such as The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine, or articles like "Race, Health Disparities, Incarceration, and Structural Inequality."

Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

A scholarly encyclopedia that is a great place to start your research. Each article has a "Discussion of the Literature" that usually has many recommendations for primary sources.

Librarian for Medical History

Melissa Grafe's picture
Melissa Grafe
John R. Bumstead Librarian for Medical History
Cushing/Whitney Medical Library
Yale University
333 Cedar Street
New Haven, CT 06510