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Reparative Archival Description Task Force: Yale records on Japanese American incarceration during World War II

Yale records on Japanese American incarceration during World War II

 

Introduction

These guidelines were written in 2020-2021 by members of the Reparative Archival Description Task Force: Stephanie Bredbenner, Alison Clemens, Cate Peebles, Karen Spicher, Jessica Tai (chair), and Timothy Thompson. This document was formed to provide additional guidance on the remediation of collections documenting Japanese American incarceration during World War II. The authors of these guidelines consist of a majority of white people at a predominately white institution. None of the primary task force members identify as Japanese American. In the course of developing these recommendations we have collaborated with community groups, including Densho and the Japanese American Citizens League who have advised on the development of our preferred terminology guidelines. Both groups were offered honoraria for their time and expertise. In addition, other members of the Yale community have served in consultative roles on our task force, including James Kessenides, Librarian for American History, Haruko Nakamura, Librarian for Japanese Studies, and Mary Lui, Professor of American Studies and History. We thank our colleagues for their invaluable contributions to our work. 


Methodology

Terms used in our preferred terminology guide (see below) have been selected based on community-produced resources, including Densho’s Terminology Guide and the Japanese American Citizen League’s Power of Words Handbook. These resources aided us in identifying which finding aids and MARC records we included for redescription. Identification was also guided by prior research conducted by Yale graduate students Megan Asaka and Courtney Sato. A list of the records included in the project are located in a chart below. Additional conversations with both groups helped determine our local preferred terms, and as well as additional guidelines on the application of terms and potential exceptions. We recognize the limits on reaching a definitive consensus on the preferred terms to describe specific communities or events.


Style

Recognizing the need for nuance and careful consideration in redescription, the following style guidelines have been formulated:

  • Inserting preferred terminology in place of existing description can be challenging, as adding new language can feel as though it is not adequately integrated. Description should be looked at holistically, taking context into consideration, and making additional edits as needed to ensure cohesion. 

    • Although repeating terms such as “incarcerees” may feel awkward, it is preferable over leaving non-preferred terms in place. When possible, use people-first language to avoid repetition (i.e. “people,” or using the names of the incarcerees vs. only using the term “incarcerees”)  

  • When using the preferred terminology guide to determine preferred terms, pay special attention to the “notes” column. This additional guidance includes important considerations when conducting redescription, including exceptions for the use of certain non-preferred terms. 


Exceptions for the use of non preferred terminology

In the “notes” column of the preferred terminology guide, it lists that there is an exception for the use of the terms, “interned,” “internment,” and “internment camp.” These terms should be reserved for cases of describing Japanese Americans detained by the Army or the DOJ. An accompanying tab on the spreadsheet lists the DOJ and Army camps that qualify for the use of these terms. 

Another exception is the use of “relocation center” when used as part of an official name (ex. “Gila River War Relocation Center.” Use the preferred term, “American concentration camp” to describe camps (ex. Minidoka concentration camp), or use the official name in conjunction with the preferred term (ex. The Gila River War Relocation Center was an American concentration camp in Arizona). 


ArchivesSpace

Processing information

Provide the following note specific to material documenting Japanese American incarceration:

This finding aid was revised in [year] to address outdated or harmful descriptive language. During that revision, description was changed in [general description of descriptive sites, e.g. the scope and contents notes of Series I and Series II].  References to Japanese-American “relocation,” “evacuation,” and “internment” during World War II were removed and replaced with community recommended/currently accepted terminology in [year], such as “Japanese American incarceration.” Previous versions of this finding aid may be available. Please contact [repository] for details. If you have questions or comments about these revisions, please contact the [repository] or the Archival and Manuscript Description Committee. For more information on reparative archival description at Yale, see <ref href="https://guides.library.yale.edu/specialcollections/statementondescription">Yale’s Statement on Harmful Language in Archival Description.</ref>

If original creator folder titles or original descriptive notes are present in the finding aid, indicate that in the processing information note accordingly:

Folder titles were revised to enclose original creator-supplied titles in quotation marks [in accordance with Yale University Library/repository policy] in [year]. Original folder titles may include outdated or harmful descriptive language. Original folder titles have been maintained to preserve the original context of how the creator labeled their files. 

This finding aid contains original creator-supplied titles.  [Devised titles are enclosed in brackets, and all other folder titles are original.] [All folder titles in this finding aid are original.]  Original folder titles may include outdated or harmful descriptive language. Original folder titles have been maintained to preserve the original context of how the creator labeled their files. 

Use of original descriptive language in titles/description

This finding aid contains original descriptive language for materials that may contain outdated or harmful language. This may include [transcribed captions of photographs/transcribed titles of printed works]. The use of this description is not an endorsement of the language it contains. Original descriptive language has been retained to promote searchability and discoverability of the collections.

For additional guidance on processing notes, see: [placeholder for URL for standardized notes page].

Revision statement

Include the following revision statement when changes are made to the finding aid:

Finding aid revised to replace outdated or harmful descriptive language. See the processing note for more information.

For additional guidance on revision statements, see: Reparative Archival Description Task Force: Standardized descriptive notes.

Biographical/historical

When a record lacks sufficient or proper historical context, a standard biographical/historical note should be added as the first biog/hist note:

The United States declared war on Japan in 1941 following an attack by Japan on the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Under authority granted by Executive Order 9066, issued in February 1942, the federal government incarcerated over 120,000 people of Japanese descent in American concentration camps.

Edit this note as needed to indicate differing historical contexts, e.g. incarceration in Canada or Latin America. 


MARC

If the collection has a finding aid. NOTE: only add this note if actual language was revised in the catalog record.

Put the processing information note from the finding aid (see above) in a 954 (Reparative description) field, changing “finding aid” to “catalog record.” 

If the collection/item does not have a finding aid, add a note similar to the following in a 954 field. NOTE: only add this note if actual language was revised in the catalog record. 

This catalog record was edited in 2021 as part of ongoing revision of outdated or harmful language in cataloging. Previous versions of this catalog record may be available. For more information, contact the [repository]. ‡d YYYY-MM-DD ‡7 repdesc

If the record includes the use of original descriptive language in titles/description, you can add the following text to a 954 note:

This catalog record contains original descriptive language for materials that may contain outdated or harmful language. This may include [transcribed captions of photographs/transcribed titles of printed works]. The use of this description is not an endorsement of the language it contains. Original descriptive language has been retained to promote searchability and discoverability of the collections. ‡d YYYY-MM-DD ‡7 repdesc

When a record lacks proper historical context, a standard 545 note should be added as the last 500 note in the record:

The United States declared war on Japan in 1941 following an attack by Japan on the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Under authority granted by Executive Order 9066, issued in February 1942, the federal government incarcerated over 120,000 people of Japanese descent in American concentration camps.


Subject Headings

RAD is currently monitoring proposed changes to the “Japanese Americans—Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945” Library of Congress Subject Heading. Based on the results of the LCSH proposal, RAD will proceed by either overseeing the revision of subject headings for relevant records, or recommend further work locally. 

 

Catalog records and finding aids included in the project

Note: Some catalog records and/or finding aids listed below did not require descriptive note revisions, but will include subject heading or access point remediation. See the above section on Subject Headings for more information. 

 

Call number

Repository 

Title

Link to finding aid and/or catalog record

WA MSS S-4113

Beinecke 

Photographs of baseball players in Gila River Relocation Center

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/15377464

WA MSS S-1590

Beinecke 

Walter Millsap / Keikichi Akana Imamura family papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/3623767

WA MSS S-2429

Beinecke 

United States War Relocation Authority reports

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4887545

WA MSS S-2650

Beinecke 

Records related to the community government at the Poston Relocation Center, Arizona

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/9617823

WA MSS S-2651

Beinecke 

Mary Burford Courage papers related to the Poston Relocation Center, Arizona

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/9617954

WA MSS S-2894 R4499

Beinecke 

Letter : Missoula, Montana, to Walter

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/11775315

WA MSS S-2897

Beinecke 

Yonekazu Satoda papers, photographs, and films

https://archives.yale.edu/repositories/11/resources/1339

WA MSS S-2996

Beinecke 

United States Army Western Defense Command records

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12292798

WA MSS S-3059

Beinecke 

[Drawings of scenes of the Central Utah Relocation Center]

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12514916

WA MSS S-3082

Beinecke 

Katano family papers,

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12597464

WA MSS S-3088

Beinecke 

Albert Tsugawa papers relating to Tri-Lake High School, Tule Lake Relocation Center

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12604767

WA MSS S-3108 Sa782

Beinecke 

Ben S. Sasaki papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12704951

WA MSS S-3114

Beinecke 

Kennosuke Matsuo papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12729603

WA MSS S-3117

Beinecke 

Tetsu Oda papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12737540

WA MSS S-3198

Beinecke 

Report on the evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry from the northern California sector

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12949221

WA MSS S-3211

Beinecke 

Aiko Takita and Miyeko Takita papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12899536

WA MSS S-3315 El528

Beinecke 

Report on alien internee camps : typescript.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/13429697

WA MSS S-3367 N633

Beinecke 

Corrine Nishimura autograph album : manuscript.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/13556465

WA MSS S-3470

Beinecke 

Sally Sakae Kusayanagi and Thomas Mosahur Okabe correspondence

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/13930224

WA MSS S-3744

Beinecke 

John Fujio Aiso and Sumi Akiyama Aiso papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14455463

WA MSS S-3895 G79893

Beinecke 

Statistics on evacuees removed from Northern California from files on Wartime Civil Control Administration : Report on Japanese-Americans relocated in northern California from Western Relocation Division of WRA

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14495578

WA MSS S-3897

Beinecke 

Noriko Sawada Bridges Flynn and Haruko Fujioka letters and photograph album

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14527258

WA MSS S-3903 K8119

Beinecke 

Jay K. Kochi papers concerning Gila River Relocation Center

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14531144

WA MSS S-3993

Beinecke 

Matsuura family letters

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14600239

WA MSS S-3994

Beinecke 

Ii family correspondence

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14601412

WA MSS S-4027

Beinecke 

Heart Mountain Community Christian Church programs

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14612189

WA MSS S-4070 K8119

Beinecke 

Jay K. Kochi high school graduation papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14799813

WA MSS S-4115 M6997

Beinecke 

Manzanar : typescript

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14976458

WA Photos 510

Beinecke 

 

Photographs of Japanese and Japanese American incarcerees at the Poston Relocation Center, Arizona.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/11775348

WA Photos 537

Beinecke 

[Photographs of the Manzanar Concentration Camp, California].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.manzanar

WA Photos 550

Beinecke 

[Photograph album of activities in California and correspondence related to Japanese American incarceration].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12941743

WA Photos 557

Beinecke 

 

[Photographs of Japanese American adolescents and young adults during World War II incarceration].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/13024359

WA Photos 778

Beinecke 

 

[Photograph album related to the Bay Farm concentration camp at Slocan, British Columbia, and agricultural work at the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14627371

WA Photos Folio 207

Beinecke 

War relocation center Manzanar California

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14792988

Zc49 +On5

Beinecke

Onlooker

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12757888

2019 Folio 123

Beinecke

Relocation of Japanese Americans

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14740844

Zc56 +R53

Beinecke

Rivulet (Rivers, Ariz.)

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14552209

Zc45 +943mi

Beinecke

Minidoka interlude : September, 1942-October, 1943 / [edited by Tom Takeuchi].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14479522

1978 Folio S106

Beinecke

Tulean dispatch (Newell, Calif. : 1943)

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/3823050

Zc24 +V66

Beinecke

Victoria / presented by The Students of Denson High School.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14792884

Zc49 +983am

Beinecke

Amache remembered, 1942-1945 / [Amache Memorial Project].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12601088

E184 J3 U53 (LC)

Beinecke

Uprooted Americans in your community

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/5454916

1979 Folio S26

Beinecke

Topaz Times

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/11318523

Zc10 +943ja

Beinecke

Japanese American student relocation : an American challenge.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/8147628

Zc72 2003bL

Beinecke

Blossoms in the desert

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12764756

Zc45 +H91

Beinecke

Memoirs / Hunt High School.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/13028155

Zc56 +Y33

Beinecke

Year's Flight.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12914934

Zc24 988je

Beinecke

Jerome reunion. II : October 7, 8, 9, 1988.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12851555

2019 +S655

Beinecke

Information digest : for the use of the WRA staff / War Relocation Authority.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/14712969

1979 +S7

Beinecke

Post-año.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/3675366

1978 Folio S104

Beinecke

Heart Mountain sentinel.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/3669191

Zc10 +942ch

Beinecke

A chronology of evacuation and relocation.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4814326

Zc72 +945va

Beinecke

Valediction / published by the Associated Student Body of Manzanar High School.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12364289

Zc72 +944ou

Beinecke

Our world, 1943-1944 : Manzanar High.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12294258

Zc72 944ar 

Beinecke

Archie-- senior year at Tri-State.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12293235

Zc72 943to

Beinecke

Today we follow, tomorrow we lead : senior colors, red and white.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12293090

Zc56 +945mo

Beinecke

Mohaveland.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/12264637

Zc47 +H35

Beinecke

Documents Composed at the Heart Mountain Relocation Camp in Wyoming

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/8613659

RG 178

DIV

Charlotte B. DeForest Papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4891676

RG 61

DIV

Issues of Peace and War Pamphlet Collection

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4683524

 

MS 1089

Manuscripts & Archives

Sidney Lovett papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/967570

MS 1129

Manuscripts & Archives

Bernard Bloch Papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/mssa.ms.1129

MS 1830

Manuscripts & Archives

Christopher Phillips papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/7006826

MS 1923

Manuscripts & Archives

Samuel Kravitt photographs and other materials

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/8379447

 

https://archives.yale.edu/repositories/12/resources/4021

MS 465

Manuscripts & Archives

Henry Lewis Stimson papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4292670

MS 688

Manuscripts & Archives

World War II collection,

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/613729

 

https://archives.yale.edu/repositories/12/resources/4450

MS 771

Manuscripts & Archives

Elizabeth Page Harris Papers

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/mssa.ms.0771

MS 803

Manuscripts & Archives

United States War Relocation Authority. Poston, Arizona Relocation Center Collection

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/mssa.ms.0803

D769.8 A6 L47

Sterling

U.S. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/351210

Film B17277

Sterling

President Franklin D. Roosevelt's office files, 1933-1945

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4341297

Film B21136

Sterling

Japanese-American evacuation and resettlement records

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/10464603

Film B20859

Sterling

Records of the War Relocation Authority, 1942-1946 field basic documentation located at the National Archives, Washington, D.C.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/8448408

Film An J271 19-20

Sterling

Topaz Times

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/479541

Cb4y J27 +Un33p

Sterling

United States. War Relocation Authority. Community Analysis Section.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/5487125

Cb4y J27 949p

Sterling

The College Nisei

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/5279857

Film B14028

Sterling

The governing of men [microform]; general principles and recommendation based on experience at a Japanese relocation camp [by] Alexander H. Leighton.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/1029910

D753.8 Y67 1988

Sterling

Manzanar Concentration Camp diary : 12/7/41--12/17/42 

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/903055

WQ 1187

Sterling

[Report of activities at the Colorado River Relocation Center (for Japanese) at Poston, Arizona]

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/2192226

PL889 U6 N55 1997 7

Sterling

Hāto Maunten bungei.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4439666

PL889 U6 N55 1997 5-6

Sterling

Tessaku.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4439353

PL889 U6 N55 1997 3-4

Sterling

Doto

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4439342

PL889 U6 N55 1997 2

Sterling

Wakōdo.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4439339

WC 4596

Sterling

A Tule Lake interlude; first anniversary, Tule Lake W.R.A. project, May 27, 1942-1943.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/2871699

Zc49 +944am 

Sterling

Amache

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4765949

PL889 U6 N55 1997 8-12

Sterling

Posuton bungei.

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/4439670

Film S1338

Sterling

Pacific citizen [microform].

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/480402


Preferred terminology guide for materials documenting Japanese American incarceration

 

Non-preferred term Community preferred term/s Local preferred term Notes Sources
assembly center/camp temporary detention center temporary detention center Assembly center should only be used as part of a proper noun (ex. Santa Anita Assembly Center). The use of a proper noun should be followed by the preferred term (ex. At its peak, the Santa Anita Assembly Center, a temporary detention center, held 18,719 incarcarees) Densho, JACL
detainees incarcerees incarcerees Refers to those held in American concentration camps JACL
evacuation forced removal, exclusion forced removal   Densho, JACL
interned incarcerated incarcerated Use preferred term, unless in the specific case of describing Japanese Americans detained by the Army or DOJ Densho, JACL
internees incarcerees incarcerees Refers to those held in American concentration camps JACL
internment incarceration incarceration Use preferred term, unless in the specific case of describing Japanese Americans detained by the Army or DOJ. If this context is not known, use the preferred term. Densho
internment camp American concentration camp, incarceration camp, illegal detention center American concentration camp Use preferred term to describe camps (ex. Minidoka concentration camp) Internment camp may be used in the exception of describing Japanese Americans detained by the Army or DOJ. If this context is not known, use the preferred term. Densho, JACL
internment center internment center internment center Use this term only when describing a DOJ or Army camp holding Japanese Americans under Alien Enemies Act 1798 JACL
Japanese detainees Japanese American incarceree Japanese American incarceree   Densho, JACL
Japanese evacuees Japanese American incarceree Japanese American incarceree   Densho, JACL
Japanese relocation Japanese American incarceration Japanese American incarceration   Densho, JACL
Japanese-American detainees Japanese American incarceree Japanese American incarceree   Densho, JACL
Japanese-Americans evacuees Japanese American incarceree Japanese American incarceree   Densho, JACL
relocate forced removal forced removal   JACL
relocation forced removal forced removal   JACL
relocation center/camp American concentration camp, incarceration camp, illegal detention center American concentration camp In describing certain historical contexts, or describing official government communication,
the phrase relocation center may be appropriate only as part
of an official name (ex. "Gila River War Relocation Center" or "War Relocation Authority")
It is not otherwise recommended for general usage even with
quotation marks.
Use preferred term to describe camps (ex. Minidoka concentration camp), or use the official name in conjunction with the preferred term (ex. The Gila River War Relocation Center was an American concentration camp in Arizona)
Densho, JACL
temporary detention camp temporary detention center

temporary detention center

  JACL