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Mesopotamian commentaries represent the world’s oldest cohesive group of hermeneutic texts. Numbering nearly 900, the earliest date to the eighth century and the latest to ca. 100 BCE. The purpose of this website is to make the corpus available both to the scholarly community and a more general audience by providing background information on the genre, a searchable catalog, as well as photos, drawings, annotated editions, and translations of individual commentary tablets. For the first time the cuneiform commentaries, currently scattered over 21 museums around the globe, will be accessible on one platform.
Sumerian is the first language for which we have written evidence and its literature the earliest known. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL), a project of the University of Oxford, comprises a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE.
The corpus contains Sumerian texts in transliteration, English prose translations and bibliographical information for each composition. The transliterations and the translations can be searched, browsed and read online using the tools of the website.
Funding for the ETCSL project came to an end in the summer of 2006 and no work is currently being done to this site or its contents.
This site is devoted to the study of Greek New Testament manuscripts. The New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room is a place where scholars can come to find the most exhaustive list of New Testament manuscript resources, can contribute to marking attributes about these manuscripts, and can find state of the art tools for researching this rich dataset.
Conçue au départ dans le but de mettre à la portée des simples fidèles une exégèse de l'Ancien Testament, la Bible Annotée n'en est pas moins, encore aujourd'hui, bien supérieure, sur le plan de l'érudition et de la qualité exégétique, à bon nombre de commentaires plus modernes. C'est qu'elle a su réunir, sous la tutelle de Frédéric Godet, deux qualités qui devraient toujours être les marques du véritable protestantisme évangélique : l'honnêteté intellectuelle et la piété.
Oxford Biblical Studies Online provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the Bible and biblical history. The integration of authoritative scholarly texts and reference works with tools that provide ease of research into the background, context, and issues related to the Bible make Oxford Biblical Studies Online a valuable resource not only for college students, scholars, and clergy, but also anyone in need of an authoritative, ecumenical, and up-to-date resource.
This is a system for the study of the Hebrew Bible, produced by the ETCBC. It is powered by the ETCBC database, formerly known as WIVU, and it facilitates powerful syntactical queries. SHEBANQ lets you develop and share those queries with fellow researchers. It uses a queries-as-annotations paradigm. Scholarly editions of the Bible usually dedicate space to a critical apparatus and various kinds of annotations. SHEBANQ introduces the idea of annotating the text with queries. They show up next to the text pages where the results are. By sharing your queries with others, you may find what you did not search for.
Welcome to The Bible Tool-- a free, evolving open source tool for exploring the Bible and related texts online. Created by CrossWire Bible Society, the Society of Biblical Literature and the American Bible Society as the first in a number of coming Bible engagement tools using an XML standard called OSIS, we provide power searching capabilities and cutting edge tools to help you engage the Bible at a deeper level.
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) is very proud to present the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library, a free online digitized virtual library of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Hundreds of manuscripts made up of thousands of fragments – discovered from 1947 and until the early 1960’s in the Judean Desert along the western shore of the Dead Sea – are now available to the public online. The high resolution images are extremely detailed and can be accessed through various search options on the site.
Sefaria is building the future of Jewish learning in an open and participatory way.
We are building a free living library of Jewish texts and their interconnections, in Hebrew and in translation. Our scope is Torah in the broadest sense, from Tanakh to Talmud to Zohar to modern texts and all the volumes of commentary in between. Sefaria is created, edited, and annotated by an open community.
Having digital texts enables us to create new, interactive interfaces for the Web, tablet and mobile which allow students and scholars around the world to freely learn and explore the interconnections among Torah texts.
Judaism's core texts grew out of millennia-long conversations and arguments across generations. We envision creating an open space for ancient conversations to continue in new ways, with new participants, new questions, and new layers of dialo
Collex is an open-source collections- and exhibits-builder designed to aid humanities scholars working in digital collections or within federated research environments like NINES. Collex operates under the assumption that the best paths through a complex digital resource are those forged by use and interpretation.
CommentPress is an open source theme and plugin for the WordPress blogging engine that allows readers to comment paragraph-by-paragraph, line-by-line or block-by-block in the margins of a text. Annotate, gloss, workshop, debate: with CommentPress you can do all of these things on a finer-grained level, turning a document into a conversation. It can be applied to a fixed document (paper/essay/book etc.) or to a running blog. Use it in combination with multisite, BuddyPress and BuddyPress Groupblog to create communities around your documents.
Juxta is a cross-platform tool for collating, comparing, and analyzing any kind or number of textual objects. The tool can set any textual witness as the base text and can filter white space and/or punctuation.
The overarching goals of this project (consisting of multiple phases) are:
1. To facilitate the emergence of a Web and Resource-centric interoperable annotation environment that allows leveraging annotations across the boundaries of annotation clients, annotation servers, and content collections. To this end, interoperability specifications will be devised.
2. To demonstrate through implementations an interoperable annotation environment enabled by the interoperability specifications in settings characterized by a variety of annotation client/server environments, content collections, and scholarly use cases.
3. To seed widespread adoption by deploying robust, production-quality applications conformant with the interoperable annotation environment in ubiquitous and specialized services, tools, and content used by scholars -- e.g.: Zotero, AXE, LORE, Co-Annotea, Pliny; JSTOR, AustLit, MONK.
The SharedCanvas data model specifies a linked data based approach for describing digital facsimiles of physical objects in a collaborative fashion. It is intended for use in the cultural heritage domain, although may be useful in other areas, and is designed around requirements derived from digitized text-bearing objects such as medieval manuscripts. Instances of the data model are consumed by rendering platforms in order to understand the relationships between the constituent text, image, audio or other resources. These resources are associated with an abstract Canvas, or parts thereof, via Open Annotations and the Annotations are grouped and ordered in OAI-ORE Aggregations.
The Text Encoding Initiative Consortium is an international organization whose mission is to develop and maintain guidelines for the digital encoding of literary and linguistic texts. The Consortium publishes the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange: an international and interdisciplinary standard that is widely used by libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars to represent all kinds of textual material for online research and teaching.
This site is a collaborative online environment in which users can edit, translate, and produce commentaries on a variety of ancient source documents, including epigraphs, medieval manuscripts, and texts transmitted through the manuscript tradition such as Homer’s Iliad.
Apuleius of Madauros (born c. 123 AD, d. c. 170) is best known as the author of the Metamorphoses, otherwise known (since Augustine's time) as The Golden Ass. He was a poet, philosopher, and rhetorician from whom numerous works survive (some of doubtful authenticity). The extraordinary interest of the Metamorphoses has been rewarded by abundant modern scholarly study, but his other works have never received the attention they deserve.
This web site is an attempt to redress that balance as part of an experiment in philology, pedagogy, and scholarly discourse. The text at hand is the Apologia of Apuleius, the declamation by which he defended himself on a capital charge of at least magic and possibly murder, all apparently arising out of jealousies raised by his marriage to a distinguished older woman.
Archelogos aims at the development of methods of electronic representation of arguments, and methods of electronic reasoning, using advanced artificial intelligence techniques.
Archelogos has established a network of international cooperation with distinguished philosophers, experts in argumentation and researchers in artificial intelligence from leading universities throughout the world.
The main area of application of Archelogos Projects is ancient philosophy and in particular the works of Plato and Aristotle in Project Archelogos.
provides a revised edition of the Greek texts of Felix Jacoby’s Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker where relevant. It includes several new authors and many fragments of existing authors that were either unknown to Jacoby or excluded by him. It also gives commentaries in those cases where Jacoby failed to do so. Brill's New Jacoby presents facing English translations of the Greek fragments, a new, critical commentary, and a brief encyclopedia-style entry about each historian’s life and works, with a select bibliography.
This website offers a critical edition of the poems of Catullus, a repertory of conjectures on the text, an overview of the ancient quotations from Catullus that have independent source value, and high-quality images of some of the most important manuscripts. It was constructed between 2009 and 2013 in the course of the research project An Online Repertory of Conjectures for Catullus at the Center for Advanced Studies and the Abteilung für Griechische und Lateinische Philologie of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
Cyrus’ Paradise is the world’s first comprehensive, online, collaborative commentary for a Classical text: Xenophon’s Education of Cyrus or Cyropaedia (more on Xenophon here and here). Cyrus’ Paradise features comments, multimedia (pictures, audio, video), bibliography, and grammatical and syntactical instruction from authorized users.
Using a digital text of Herodotus’s Histories, Hestia uses web-mapping technologies such as GIS, Google Earth and the Narrative TimeMap to investigate the cultural geography of the ancient world through the eyes of one of its first witnesses.
The Homer Multitext project seeks to present the Homeric Iliad and Odyssey in a critical framework that accounts for the fact that these poems were composed orally over the course of hundreds, if not thousands of years by countless singers who composed in performance. The evolution and the resulting multiformity of the textual tradition, reflected in the many surviving texts of Homer, must be understood in its many different historical contexts. Using technology that takes advantage of the best available practices and open source standards that have been developed for digital publications in a variety of fields, the Homer Multitext offers free access to a library of texts and images and tools to allow readers to discover and engage with the Homeric tradition.
Il progetto di ricerca “Musisque Deoque. Un archivio digitale di poesia latina, dalle origini al Rinascimento italiano”, è partito alla fine del 2005 con lo scopo di creare un unico database della poesia latina, integrato e aggiornato da apparati critici ed esegetici elettronici.
Repertory of Conjectures on Horace is a searchable database providing information on conjectures proposed on Horace’s poems in printed works. The database consists of two files, Repertory of conjectures and Bibliography.
In the Repertory users may search for:
1. all conjectures proposed on a given passage in Horace’s oeuvre, be it a word or a line or an entire poem, 2. information on any given conjecture: who proposed it as his own? who attributed it to someone else? where has it been discussed? 3. types of conjecture (e.g. substitution, deletion of lines) 4. cases in which a reading attributed to someone as a conjecture was not proposed as a conjecture but quoted as a manuscript reading.
The Repertory provides links to publications listed in a Bibliography. The Bibliography lists all works that the compilers have checked and works that they have not checked but entered in the Bibliography on the assumption that they mi
Pope’s ‘Suidas’ is not a man but a work, The Suda (or Stronghold): a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, covering the whole of Greek and Roman antiquity and also including Biblical and Christian material.
This document is an on-line reprint of Augustine: Confessions, a text and commentary by James J. O'Donnell. The text and commentary were encoded in SGML by the Stoa Consortium in co-operation with the Perseus Project; the HTML files were generated from the archival SGML version.
Each book of the text has a link to introductory commentary on that book, and each section of the text has a link to detailed comments on the section. Links within the commentary connect not only to the section of text directly being annotated, but also to other parts of the text and commentary. Footnotes in the commentary appear at the end of each book; the footnote numbers are links from the commentary text to the footnote and from the footnote text back to the commentary. Where possible, links have been provided to the texts of classical works and Biblical passages cited in the commentary.
The Vergil Project is a resource for students, teachers, and readers of Vergil's Aeneid. It offers an on-line hypertext linked to interpretive materials of various kinds. These include basic information about grammar, syntax, and diction; several commentaries; an apparatus criticus; help with scansion; and other resources.
The guiding question of our project is how contemporary informational technology can facilitate, enhance and innovate the complex cognitive and learning activities involved in reading a late medieval literary text like Boccaccio's Decameron. We believe that the new electronic environment and its tools enable us to revive the humanistic spirit of communal and collaboratively "playful" learning of which the Decameron itself is the utmost expression. Through a creative use of technology, our project provides the reader with an easily accessible and flexible yet well-structured wealth of information on the literary, historical and cultural context of the Decameron, thus allowing a vivid yet rigorously philological understanding of the past in which the work was conceived.
The Online Froissart brings a holistic, dynamic approach to the manuscripts of Jean Froissart’s Chroniques. It establishes a robust and sustainable platform for the delivery of electronic transcriptions of the Chroniques, of annotation and other secondary materials pertaining to those transcriptions, and of digital reproductions of several of the original manuscripts in high-resolution format. Users of the Online Froissart can query textual data interactively, collate text across several witnesses, or use a special viewing mode allowing them to look up the definition of a word used by the chronicler in the online Dictionnaire du Moyen Français. These and other features offer users of the Online Froissart a range of non-textual (palaeographical, codicological, art-historical and lexicographical) information present on the manuscript page but normally not immediately accessible or even present in more traditional print editions.
The Pico Project makes accessible a complete resource for the reading and interpretation of the Discourse within its own context, from an initial encounter through direct contact with the original text, presented here in its first printed edition (Bologna 1496) of which there exist no extant manuscripts.
The electronic apparatus permits the user to take one step further, beyond the written text, towards the fullest realization of the anti-esoteric attitude which inspired Pico to publish his 900 theses and to present them for public discussion.
The goal of the TEAMS Middle English text series is to make available to teachers and students texts which occupy an important place in the literary and cultural canon but which have not been readily available in student editions.
The focus is upon literature adjacent to that normally in print, which teachers need in compiling the syllabi they wish to teach. The editions maintain the linguistic integrity of the original works but within the parameters of modern reading conventions.
Understanding Shakespeare is a collaborative project between JSTOR Labs and the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is a research tool that allows students, educators and scholars to use the text of Shakespeare’s plays to quickly navigate into the scholarship written about them—line by line.
The Medieval Electronic Scholarly Alliance (MESA) is a federated international community of scholars, projects, institutions, and organizations engaged in digital scholarship within the field of medieval studies. MESA seeks:
1. to provide a community for those engaged in digital medieval studies and
2. to meet emerging needs of this community, including making recommendations on technological and scholarly standards for electronic scholarship, the aggregation of data, and the ability to discover and repurpose this data.
The Chinese Text Project is an online open-access digital library that makes pre-modern Chinese texts available to readers and researchers all around the world. The site attempts to make use of the digital medium to explore new ways of interacting with these texts that are not possible in print. With over ten thousand titles and more than one billion characters, the Chinese Text Project is also one of the largest databases of pre-modern Chinese texts in existence.
The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center is dedicated to the preservation, organization and dissemination of Tibetan literature. Using the latest digital technologies, TBRC is ensuring that the treasures of this incredible body of literature will never be lost.
The Blake Archive was conceived as an international public resource that would provide unified access to major works of visual and literary art that are highly disparate, widely dispersed, and more and more often severely restricted as a result of their value, rarity, and extreme fragility.
Emily Dickinson Archive (EDA) provides high-resolution images of manuscripts of Dickinson’s poetry, along with transcriptions and annotations from selected historical and scholarly editions. This first release focuses on gathering images of those poems included in The Poems of Emily Dickinson: Variorum Edition, edited by R. W. Franklin (Cambridge: Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1998). These manuscripts vary from “scraps” written on envelope flaps and pieces of wrapping paper; to drafts; to finished poems sent to friends or copied into the manuscript books called “fascicles.”
This archive constitutes a resource for studying the literary history of popular British and American poetry. Much of it composed during what can be called the “bull market” of poetry's popularity(1), late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century popular poetry was often written in what came to be designated an "effeminate" style, whether written by men or women. Writings in the poetess tradition were disseminated in myriad collections: miscellanies, beauties, literary annuals, gift books. They achieved a place of prominence in virtually every middle-class household. The Poetess Archive Database now contains a bibliography of over 4,000 entries for works by and about writers working in and against the “poetess tradition,” the extraordinarily popular, but much criticized, flowery poetry written in Britain and America between 1750 and 1900.
The Rossetti Archive facilitates the scholarly study of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the painter, designer, writer, and translator who was, according to both John Ruskin and Walter Pater, the most important and original artistic force in the second half of the nineteenth century in Great Britain.
Completed in 2008 to the plan laid out in 1993, the Archive provides students and scholars with access to all of DGR's pictorial and textual works and to a large contextual corpus of materials, most drawn from the period when DGR's work first appeared and established its reputation (approximately 1848-1920), but some stretching back to the 14th-century sources of his Italian translations.
The Victorian Web, which originated in hypermedia environments (Intermedia, Storyspace) that existed long before the World Wide Web, is one of the oldest academic and scholarly websites. It takes an approach that differs markedly from many Internet projects.
The Victorian Web presents its images and documents, including entire books, as nodes in a network of complex connections. In other words, it emphasizes the link rather than the search tool (though it has one) and presents information linked to other information rather than atomized and isolated
The Walt Whitman Archive endeavors to make Whitman's vast work freely and conveniently accessible to scholars, students, and general readers. Whitman, America's most influential poet and a writer of global renown, is the most challenging of all American authors in terms of the textual difficulties his work presents.
Drawing on the resources of libraries and collections from around the world, the Whitman Archive is the most comprehensive record of works by and about Whitman—and continues to grow.
The site is intended to serve as a resource for research and study of Woolf's modernist classic. On this site you will find images and transcriptions of the holograph drafts (in three notebooks housed in the Berg Collection of the New York Public Library), the typescripts, the proofs, and various early editions of the novel, including the first British and American editions and their variants. Also included is a wealth of contextual materials, such as diary entries and letters pertaining to the novel, early reviews of the novel, selected essays Woolf wrote during the two- year period during which she worked on To the Lighthouse, and photographs of the Stephen family, Cornwall, and Talland House, all of which inform the setting and characters of the novel.
Oxford Scholarly Editions Online (OSEO) is a major publishing initiative from Oxford University Press, providing an interlinked collection of authoritative Oxford editions of major works from the humanities. Scholarly editions are the cornerstone of humanities scholarship, and Oxford University Press’s list is unparalleled in breadth and quality. By publishing these texts online OSEO transforms humanities scholarship, making texts more accessible, searchable, and interconnected than ever before.
(Networked Infrastructure for Nineteenth-Century Electronic Scholarship) is a scholarly organization devoted to forging links between the material archive of the nineteenth century and the digital research environment of the twenty-first. Our activities are driven by three primary goals:
to serve as a peer-reviewing body for digital work in the long 19th-century (1770-1920), British and American; to support scholars’ priorities and best practices in the creation of digital research materials; to develop software tools for new and traditional forms of research and critical analysis.
A digital “aggregator,” 18thConnect gathers together information about and links to the best primary and secondary texts that are available in digital form, either freely available on the Web or available by subscription. The digital scholarly resources in the field of eighteenth-century studies that are all searchable here, together, in one place, come from libraries, companies like Gale, and scholars themselves. All of these resources are either digital collections of primary texts or content that has been or will be peer-reviewed by 18thConnect itself. 18thConnect therefore contains:
1. metadata about each site or collection; 2. links that take users to the materials in sites and collections; 3. if available, plain text versions of each digital item for full-text searching.
Users who come to the site can search all the digital materials aggregated by 18thConnect at the same time by word or “facet”: title, author, date, collection, genre, disciplin
Romantic Circles is a refereed scholarly Website devoted to the study of Romantic-period literature and culture. It is the collaborative product of an ever-expanding community of editors, contributors, and users around the world, overseen by a distinguished Advisory Board.
Romantic Circles is currently serving approximately 700 thousand pages each year to users in over 190 countries around the world.