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The 2009 "Statistical System in India" reportis a good cheat sheet for finding where official data lives. It has a list of all Ministries, Departments, and local governments; PLUS their respective websites.
DevInfo India is an indicator based database system, developed by the Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of India in collaboration with the UNICEF India. This database of official statistics, originating from various Government of India Ministries and Departments, will provide important insights into various socio-economic aspects of the development of the country and its human capital. Users can drill down through levels of disaggregation of data – National, State, Districts and Sub-districts – and extract information, and present the statistical measures of the indicators in the format of map, graph or table using the built-in wizards.