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European History: European History Databases at Yale

Library resources for Western European history at Yale

Western European Databases and Web Resources

This page lists all the databases for Western European history available at Yale. While the focus is on Western Europe, some resources from Eastern Europe or Britain which might be relevent to students and scholars of Western Europe are included. For Spain and Portugal, please click here. Most of these are licensed resources only available on campus or using VPN. The page also includes some important resources freely available on the Web. 

The resources here are gouped as Europe: General, Medieval Europe, Early Modern Europe, and Modern Europe.

You can use your browser's "find" function to search by keyword.

Also, check out these language and country specific guides:

Europe: General

American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies (ABSEES)

FRANCIS. Extensive bibliographic indexing for millions of records dating back over 40 years. Produced by Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (INIST-CNRS), the database provides multidisciplinary and multilingual coverage of humanities and social sciences.

Gallica. Digital library of the French National Library (BNF). Essential site for French digital images and documents.

ARTSTOR. Image Library, useful for historical images and visual culture

Avalon Project (Yale Law School). Legal-Historical Documents from Antiquity to the Present
Cambridge Histories Online. This reference compendium allows instant access to the renowned texts of the Cambridge University Press Histories series.

International Historical Statistics. Online version of 3 Volume print collection on historical statistics from 1750-2010.  Provides key economic and social indicators for the last 260 years

Making of the Modern World. Tracks the development of the modern, western world through the lens of trade and wealth. Includes books, serials, pamphlets, essays and more. Sourced from leading collections at major libraries around the world.

Central and Eastern European Online Library. C.E.E.O.L. is an online archive which provides access to full text PDF articles from 1.106 humanities and social science journals and re-digitized documents pertaining to Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European topics.

Defining Gender. Broad range of thematically organised documents from 21 libraries for the study of gender. Sources in English. Manuscripts, printed works and illustrations combine to address the key issues from both masculine and feminine perspectives. They are indexed to provide ready accessibility  by person and subject across all five sections.

Gerritson Collection. This database includes books and periodicals that reflect the revolution of feminist consciousness and the movement for women's rights for the study of women's history in the world. The materials spanning four centuries and 15 languages from 1543-1945. The anti-feminist case and the pro-feminist as well as many other titles with an objective record of the condition of women are presented

Jahresberichte für deutsche Geschichte. Comprehensive bibliography of German history up to the present, maintained and updated by the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences

Historical Abstracts. Index of more than 2300 historical journals in over 40 languages. Essential first stop for research.

London Low Life.  Full-text searchable resource, containing colour digital images of rare books, ephemera, maps and other materials relating to 18th, 19th and early 20th century London. It is designed for both teaching and study, from undergraduate to research students and beyond.

Past Masters.  Full-text electronic editions in philosophy. The series also includes significant collections in political thought, religious studies, sociology, the history of science, economics, and classics. Original language texts are available in Latin, French, German, Danish and Dutch, aside from English and English translation.

Retrodigitized Journals. Digitized Swiss journals.  ETH-Bibliothek's platform for digitised Swiss journals from the fields of science and culture. The earliest journals on date back to the early 18th century. However, current issues are constantly added to the range.

Early Modern Europe


ARTFL (American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language). Digitized French resources, including Diderot's Encyclopédie, Bibliothèque Bleue de Troyes, the Montaigne Project, as well as historical dictionaries of the French Language

Colonial State Papers. Provides access to thousands of papers concerning English activities in the American, Canadian, and West Indian colonies between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries.

Digital Library of Classic Protestant Texts. Extensive range of seminal works from the Reformation and post-Reformation eras. The database uses PhiloLogic software to enable in-depth browsing and searching of a treasury of theological writings, biblical commentaries, confessional documents, sermons, letters, polemical treatises, and other works by hundreds of Protestant authors.

Digital Library of the Catholic Reformation. Extensive range of seminal Catholic works from the Reformation and post-Reformation eras. With 845 titles by 277 authors, the collection is a treasury of theological writings, biblical commentaries, confessional documents, social and political works, sermons, letters, polemical treatises, and other key documents. Fully searchable.

Early English Books Online (EEBO). Contains digital facsimile page images of virtually every work printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and British North America and works in English printed elsewhere from 1473-1700.

Early English Books Online--Text Creation Partnership. The Text Creation Partnership creates standardized, accurate XML/SGML encoded electronic text editions of early print books.

Early European Books. Traces the history of printing in Europe from its origins through to the close of the seventeenth century. Complements EEBO and is largely concerned with non-Anglophone materials.

Early Modern Pamphlets Online--Dutch and German Pamphlets. The Dutch Pamphlets series comprises both the complete Knuttel collection from the National Library of the Netherlands and the Van Alphen collection from Groningen University Library. Consists of almost 37,000 pamphlets. The majority of the pamphlets are in Dutch but there are also texts in French, German, Latin, and English. The German collection comprises the 16th Century Flügschriften collection, originally edited by Hans-Joachim Köhler.

Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Includes books, pamphlets, essays, broadsides and more. Based on the English Short Title Catalogue. Works published in the UK during the 18th century plus thousands from elsewhere. Primarily in English, but also includes other languages

Eighteenth-Century Journals. This Portal brings together rare journals in English printed between ca. 1685 and 1835, illuminating all aspects of eighteenth-century social, political and literary life. Many are ephemeral, lasting only for a handful of issues, others run for several years. Topics covered are extremely wide-ranging and include: colonial life; provincial and rural affairs; the French and American revolutions; reviews of literature and fashion throughout Europe; political debates; and London coffee house gossip and discussion.

Electronic Enlightenment. Online collection of edited correspondence of the early modern period, linking people across Europe, the Americas and Asia from the early 17th to the mid-19th century.

Encyclopédie d'Yverdon (Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire universel raisonné des connaissances humaines). Printed between 1770 and 1780, a successor to Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie. Sometimes referred to as the "protestant Encyclopédie" on account of its moderate stance toward religion.

English Short Title Catalog. Important resource for bibliographic research in early modern texts. The English Short Title Catalogue
(ESTC) lists over 460,000 items published between 1473 and 1800 mainly, but not exclusively, in English published mainly in the British Isles and North America from the collections of the British Library and over 2,000 other libraries.

French Revolution Digital Archive. A a multi-year collaboration of the Stanford University Libraries and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) to produce a digital version of the key research sources of the French Revolution and make them available to the international scholarly community. The archive is based around two main resources, the Archives parlementaires and a vast corpus of images first brought together in 1989 and known as the Images de la Revolution française.

Short Title Catalogue Netherlands (STCN). Dutch retrospective bibliography for the period 1540-1800; also included are concise descriptions of Dutch (post-)incunabula. The database is freely available as a scholarly bibliographic research instrument. The ultimate goal is the description of every single book that has been published before 1801 in the Netherlands and all Dutch-language books published abroad.

Grand Tour. This collection of manuscript, visual and printed sources on the history of travel. Includes letters; diaries and journals; account books; printed guidebooks; published travel writing; paintings and sketches; architectural drawings and maps. Was a rite-of-passage for many aristocratic and wealthy young men of the eighteenth century: a phenomenon which shaped the creative and intellectual sensibilities of some of the eighteenth century’s greatest artists, writers and thinkers. These accounts of the English abroad, c1550-1850, highlight the influence of continental travel on British art, architecture, urban planning, literature and philosophy.

IDZ - Index of German Journals 1750-1815. The Index of German Journals (IDZ) contains 100.000 records of articles of 195 journals published 1750 - 1815. 82,000 articles on 460,000 pages from 45 journals of the IDZ are available as full text. These are provided over the project "Retrospective Digitalization of Scientific Reviews and Literary Periodicals of the 18th and 19th Century from German
Speaking Regions" by the University of Bielefeld

International Bibliography of Humanism and the Renaissance. An international reference bibliography of academic publications on the Renaissance and the early modern period. Indexed sources range from monographs, critical editions, translations, anthologies, miscellanies and exhibition catalogues to specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias, handbooks, journal articles and reviews. Log on through the Brepols site.

Italian Reformation Online. Digital collection of works from the Italian Reformation. Almost 200 titles, mainly in Italian and Latin, with some in English, French and German.

Iter Italicum. Online edition of Paul Oskar Kristeller's Iter Italicum, the most comprehensive finding list available of previously uncatalogued or incompletely catalogued Renaissance humanistic manuscripts found in libraries and collections all over the world.

Iter: Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Access medieval and Renaissance resources featuring the Iter Bibliography, Iter Italicum, bibliographies of Milton and English women writers, and our full text journal collection. (Not all resources on this portal are subscribed to by Yale).

Luthers Werke. Electronic version of the Weimar Edition of Martin Luther's works.

Luther's Works in English. The 55-volume set of Martin Luther's Works, a monumental translation project published jointly by Fortress Press and Concordia Publishing House in 1957. The first thirty volumes contain Luther's expositions of various biblical books, while remaining volumes include his Reformation writings and occasional pieces. The final volume of the set contains an index of quotations, proper names, and topics, and a list of corrections and changes.

Medieval and Early Modern Sources Online. Primary sources on Britain and its place in the world during the medieval and early modern period (c. 1100-1800). Includes key printed sources for English, Irish, Scottish and Colonial history and original manuscripts.

Perdita Manuscripts: Women Writers, 1500-1700. The manuscripts in this site were written or compiled by women in the British Isles during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and they have been sourced from archives and libraries across the United Kingdom and the USA.

State Papers Online: Early modern government in Britain and Europe. Online resource for understanding two hundred years of British and European history, from the reign of Henry VIII to the end of the reign of Queen Anne. The largest digital manuscript archive of its kind, State Papers Online, 1509-1714 gathers together 16th- and 17th- century British State Papers and links these rare historical manuscripts to their fully text-searchable Calendars. Provides early modern scholars access to the behind the scenes workings of the Tudor and Stuart governments.

Virginia Company Archives. An important source for the study of the Atlantic World and Early Colonial Period. It contains the Ferrar Papers (1590-1790), from Magdalene College, Cambridge. Topics covered include: the founding and economic development of Virginia as seen through the papers of the Virginia Company of London, 1606-1624; the continuing interest of the Ferrar family in the settlement of North America from Jamestown to the Bermudas; trade between Britain and America; the ethnic and gender composition of early Virginia; tensions amongst the colonists and of early relations with Native Americans. It is also a crucial source for London's economic history in the Early Modern era and will be of interest to social and religious historians.

Zeitschriften der Aufklaerung (German Enlightenment Journals). Digitized German journals from the 18th and early 19th century.

Medieval Europe

Acta Sanctorum. Electronic version of the complete printed text of Acta Sanctorum, from the edition published in sixty-eight volumes by the Société des Bollandistes in Antwerp and Brussels. It is a collection of documents examining the lives of saints, organised according to each saint's feast day, and runs from the two January volumes published in 1643 to the Propylaeum to December published in 1940. The Acta Sanctorum Database contains the entire Acta Sanctorum, including all prefatory material, original texts, critical apparatus and indices. Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina reference numbers, essential references for scholars, are also included.

International Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages/Lexikon des Mittelalters. Based upon the most important encyclopaedia in the world for medievalists (published in German between 1977 and 1999), Lexikon des Mittelalterss (LexMA) 36,700 signed articles written by 3,000 authors covers all aspects of medieval studies within the period 300 to 1500. Its geographical scope covers the whole of Europe, part of the Middle East, and parts of North Africa to document the roots of Western culture and those of its neighbours in the Byzantine, Arab and Jewish worlds. The International Encyclopaedia for the Middle Ages-Online supplements the LexMA with new content.

Archive of Celtic-Latin Literature. A full-text database of the corpus of Latin literature produced in Celtic-speaking Europe from the period 400-1200 A.D.

Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi. Latin hymns of the Catholic Church (500-1400). Based on the 55 volume work from 1854-1909, this database allows for full text searches.

Bibliographie de Civilisation Medievale Online. A comprehensive, current bibliography of monographs. The database currently comprises 40,000 titles from 1958 to 2003; i.e. the whole of the relevant elements from the famous bibliography in the Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 

Bibliotheca Teubneriana Latina. Classic and Medieval Latin Texts

Brepols Aristoteles Latinus Database. The complete corpus of medieval translations of the works of Aristotle.This database contains those texts that have been critically edited in the printed Aristoteles Latinus series. 

Brepols International Directory of Medievalists

Brepols Vetus Latina. Bible Versions of the Latin Fathers. This database contains comprehensive patristic records of the Vetus Latina Institut in Beuron.

Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Historical and geographic dictionary for Church history. Includes biographies on bishops and other ecclesiastical figures. Also includes entries from the Bischoeffe des Heiligen Roemischen Reichs und der deutschprachigen Laender.

Ductus: handwriting and bookmaking in the Middle Ages. Internet-based digital program for teaching the basics of Latin Paleography-- the study of ancient handwriting--and codicology--the study of the history of bookmaking. Includes glossary and reference material.

Europa Sacra. Database on Church prelates in the Middle Ages

Germanische Altertumskunde Online. Database of early Germanic history, which includes Germanic and Northern European cultural history from the subject areas of history, archeology, art history, legal history, ethnology and religious studies. The database contains the complete data of the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde and the 70 supplementary volumes which have been published to date.

Hagiography Database. (Dumbarton Oaks) Included in the database is information from the Greek vitae and martyria of one hundred and nineteen saints of the 8th -10th c., accounts of the translations of their relics, and collections of miracles, as well as notices from the Synaxarion of Constantinople (a 10th-century liturgical collection of brief hagiographical notices). Includes  a subject index on many aspects of Byzantine civilization, from everyday life to liturgical vessels to toponyms.

In Principio. Incipit index of Latin Texts. One million incipits covering Latin literature from its origins to the Renaissance.

Incunabula Short Title Catalogue. The Incunabula Short Title Catalogue is the international database of 15th-century European printing created by the British Library with contributions from institutions worldwide.

International Medieval Bibliography. Multidisciplinary Bibliography of the Middle Ages, 300-1500.

Library of Latin Texts, Series A and Series B. More than 3200 Latin texts from Antiquity to the twentieth century.

Medieval and Early Modern Sources Online. Primary sources on Britain and its place in the world during the medieval and early modern period (c. 1100-1800). Includes key printed sources for English, Irish, Scottish and Colonial history and original manuscripts.

Medieval Family Life.  Drawing from the Paston, Cely, Plumpton, Stonor and Armburgh Papers, this resource contains full color images of the original medieval manuscripts that comprise these family letter collections along with full text searchable transcripts from the printed editions, where they are available. The original images and the transcriptions can be viewed side by side.

Medieval Sources Online. Essential texts from the Manchester University Press Medieval Sources series.

Medieval Travel Writing. Manuscripts of some of the most important works of European travel writing from the later medieval period. The chief focus is on journeys to central Asia and the Far East, including accounts of travel to Mongolia, Persia, India, China and South-East Asia.

The Middle English Compendium. Offers easy access to and interconnectivity between three major Middle English electronic resources: an electronic version of the Middle English Dictionary, a Hyper Bibliography of Middle English prose and verse, based on the MED bibliographies, and a Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse, as well as links to an associated network of electronic resources.

Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Searchable electronic version of the MGH, the most important and thorough edition of primary sources for German history from the end of the Roman Empire to 1500. Many editions (up to the  most recent three years) of the MGH are also being provided for free by the Bavarian State Library and the DFG.

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. An outstanding resource for anyone studying, or with an interest in, all aspects of European history, society, religion, and culture from 500 to 1500. Its 5000-plus entries, written by over 800 international scholars, provide authoritative coverage of the period. 

Papal Letters. The database represents the electronic version of the series of registers and letters of the popes from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, preserved in the Archivio Segreto Vaticano in Rome.

Parker Library. An interactive, web-based workspace designed to support use and study of the manuscripts in the historic Parker Library at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

Patrologia Latina Database. Writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers up to the 13th century. May also be combined to search with the Acta Sanctorum database.

Regesta Imperii. The full texts of more than 125.000 regestae of royal and papal records ranging from the Carolingians to Maximilian I. (751-1519) are available for research. Bibliography also available on this site.

Translated Texts for Historians E-Library. Liverpool University Press series makes available historical sources from A.D. 300–800 translated into English. The translated texts span A.D. 300–800 and have been translated into English from Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Arabic, Georgian, Armenian and Old Irish. The geographic range covers Syria, Arabia, Armenia, Georgia and Egypt in the East; North Africa; major cities of the Roman Empire (Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople); and Spain, Gaul, Italy, Britain and Ireland in the West. Types of writing include histories, chronicles, letters, annals, formularies, compendia, political speeches, military and theological handbooks, poems, documentary sources, records of church councils, biblical and theological commentaries, sermons, church histories, Christian treatises, Christian and pagan panegyric and polemic, Neoplatonic texts, lives of saints, bishops and popes.

Modern Europe

Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik. Documents from the Chancery of the Weimar Republic, published by the Bavarian Academy of Science and the German Federal Archive

Aufbau. German-Jewish exile newspaper, founded in 1934. Online digital access. See also the Aufbau Indexing Project 

C19: Nineteenth Century Index. Mostly British Sources.

Cold War Intelligence Online. This collection of 2,360 formerly classified U.S. government documents provides access to the declassified documentary record about the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community in its efforts to spy on the Soviet Union during the Cold War

Compact Memory. Internet archive for Jewish periodicals (mostly in German), with over 100 Jewish newspapers and journals from 1806 to 1938.

Conditions and politics in occupied Western Europe, (1940-1945). Documents from the National Archives of the UK concerning political life in Occupied Western Europe. The collection includes detailed information indexed by year and section, from the occupied states of Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and the Vatican, and the neutral countries—Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

Digital National Security Archive. Contains the most comprehensive set of declassified government documents available. Each of these collections exhaustively covers the most critical world events, countries, and U.S. policy decisions from post-World War II through the 21st century.

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). The Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) Daily Report has been the United States' principal historical record of political open source intelligence for more than half a century. The original mission of the FBIS was to monitor, record, transcribe and translate intercepted radio broadcasts from foreign governments, official news services, and clandestine broadcasts from occupied territories. Database provides a fully searchable digital edition of the United States’ principal record of political and historical open source intelligence as well as transcripts of foreign broadcasts and news, translated into English.

Historical Jewish Press. Jewish newspapers published around the world from the eighteenth century onwards. Daily newspapers, local newspapers, regional newspapers, party newspapers, children's newspapers, youth newspapers, institutional newspapers—all of these and more are included under the wide umbrella of our definition of "Jewish newspaper."

House of Commons Parliamentary Papers. Includes over 200,000 House of Commons sessional papers from 1715 to the present, with supplementary material back to 1688. HCPP delivers page images and searchable full text for each paper, along with detailed indexing.

International Encyclopedia of the First World War. An English-language virtual reference work on the First World War. The multi-perspective, open-access knowledge base is the result of an international collaborative project involving more than 1,000 authors, editors, and partners from over fifty countries. More than 1,000 articles will be gradually published. Innovative navigation schemes based on Semantic Media Wiki technology provide nonlinear access to the encyclopedia’s content.

May 1968 Collection. The Mai ‘68 poster collection in Simon Frasier University Library Special Collections consists of posters and handbills created largely by the Atelier Populaire. The collection is important as a source of documentary, artistic and historical evidence of the student protests in France during May 1968.

National Socialism, Holocaust, Resistance and Exile 1933–1945: 20th Century German History Online (Deutsche Geschichte im 20. Jh.: Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, Widerstand und Exil 1933-1945).  For this database fundamental primary sources on the National Socialist state and the NSDAP, Nazi ideology and propaganda, National Socialist justice and legislation, on resistance and persecution, and annihilation and expulsion in the "Third Reich" have been compiled and digitized.

Nineteenth Century Collections Online. Digitized primary source collections on the long nineteenth century. Consists of monographs, newspapers, pamphlets, manuscripts, ephemera, maps, photographs, statistics, and other kinds of documents in both Western and non-Western languages.

Post War Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement, 1945-1950. This online archive offers primary sources for the study and understanding of the challenges facing the European peoples in the aftermath of World War II. It covers the politics and administration of the post war refugee crisis in Europe well as the day-to-day survival of the refugees themselves.

Stalin Digital Archive The SDA is a result of collaboration between the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (RGASPI) and Yale University Press (YUP) to create an electronic database of finding aids, to digitize documents and images, and to publish in different forms and media materials from the recently declassified Stalin archive in the holdings of RGASPI.

Testaments to the Holocaust. Archives of the Wiener Library, London, the first archive to collect evidence of the Holocaust and the anti-Semitic activities of the German Nazi Party. It contains documentary evidence collected in several different programs: the eyewitness accounts which were collected before, during and after the Second World War, from people fleeing the Nazi oppression, a large collection of photographs of pre-war Jewish life, the activities of the Nazis, and the ghettoes and camps, a collection of postcards of synagogues in Germany and eastern Europe, most since destroyed, a unique collection of Nazi propaganda publications including a large collection of ‘educational’ children’s’ books, and the card index of biographical details of prominent figures in Nazi Germany, many with portrait photographs. Pamphlets, bulletins and journals published by the Wiener Library to record and disseminate the research of the Institute are also included. 75% of the content is written in German.Travel Writing, Spectacle and World History. Hundreds of accounts by women of their travels across the globe from the early 19th century to the late 20th century. Sources covering a variety of topics including; architecture; art; the British Empire; climate; customs; exploration; family life; housing; industry; language; monuments; mountains; natural history; politics and diplomacy; race; religion; science; shopping; war. A wide variety of forms of travel writing are included, ranging from unique manuscripts, diaries and correspondence to drawings, guidebooks and photographs. The resource includes a slideshow with hundreds of items of visual material, including postcards, sketches and photographs.

Travel Writing, Spectacle and World History. Hundreds of accounts by women of their travels across the globe from the early 19th century to the late 20th century. Sources covering a variety of topics including; architecture; art; the British Empire; climate; customs; exploration; family life; housing; industry; language; monuments; mountains; natural history; politics and diplomacy; race; religion; science; shopping; war. A wide variety of forms of travel writing are included, ranging from unique manuscripts, diaries and correspondence to drawings, guidebooks and photographs. The resource includes a slideshow with hundreds of items of visual material, including postcards, sketches and photographs.

Trench Journals and Unit Magazines of the First World War. An archival research resource containing a vast collection of rare magazines by and for servicemen and women of all nations during the First World War. Over 1,500 periodicals written and illustrated by serving members of the armed forces and associated welfare organizations published between 1914 and the end of 1919 are included.

Victorian Popular Culture. Resource for the study of popular entertainment in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This database offers written works, posters, postcards, and ephemeral material. The database covers four main areas: Moving Pictures, Optical Entertainments and the Advent of Cinema; Music Hall, Theatre and Popular Entertainment; Circuses, Sideshows and Freaks; Spiritualism, Sensation and Magic.