There are thousands of printed publications that provide various types of images such as paintings, scriptures, architecture, photography, advertisements as well as manga/cartoons. Categories for those images can be specified by periods, geographic locations as well as subjects such as labor movements, Atomic bomb and festivals.
Collections of images published in Japanese-language collections can also be useful, even if you do not read Japanese. Images tend to be organized chronologically and thematically, but captions will often include dates with Western calendar years. (For information regarding Japanese calendar systems, see this Duke University Library guide.)