For historical government documents research on education in the United States, keep in mind that the Department of Education was established by federal law (PL 96-88) in 1980. Before the Department of Education Organization Act, the following offices and departments were concerned with education:
When searching for pre-1980 documents in Orbis, WorldCat, the Monthly Catalog, etc., you will want to use these earlier agency names in your search terms. These names will also assist you if your research involves the U.S. National Archives (NARA).
Education in the United States is very decentralized, with considerable oversight at the state and local levels. To find state-specific information, consult this list of state education agencies' websites.
To find state-level bills and legislative activty related to education, search by keyword or state in Open States. Create a free account to set up saved searches and email notifications.