Black Legacies: Race and the European Middle Ages (Online) by Lynn T. RameyArgues that certain attitudes and practices present in Europe's Middle Ages were foundational in the development of the western concept of race. Using historical, literary, and artistic sources, Black Legacies explores the multitude of ways the coding of black as "evil" and white as "good" existed in medieval European societies.
Figuring Racism in Medieval Christianity by M. Lindsay KaplanExpands the study of the history of racism through an analysis of the Christian concept of Jewish hereditary inferiority. Imagined as a figural slavery, this idea anticipates modern racial ideologies in creating a status of permanent, inherent subordination.
The Invention of Race in the European Middle Ages (Online) by Geraldine HengExamining Europe's encounters with Jews, Muslims, Africans, Native Americans, Mongols, and the Romani ('Gypsies'), from the 12th through 15th centuries, this books argues that racial thinking, racial law, racial practices, and racial phenomena existed in medieval Europe before a recognizable vocabulary of race emerged in the West.
Stories Between Christianity and Islam (Online) by Reyhan DurmazOffers an original and nuanced understanding of Christian-Muslim relations that shifts focus from discussions of superiority, conflict, and appropriation to the living world of connectivity and creativity. Here, the late antique and medieval Near East is viewed as a world of stories shared by Christians and Muslims.