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History of Science and Medicine Primary Sources at Yale: The Scientific Revolution

A guide to Yale primary sources for research into the history of science and medicine.

The Scientific Revolution: Primary Sources

Advisory Note: Yale has important (often first) editions of practically every major player in the Scientific Revolution. The works listed below are merely a starting point; researchers are strongly advised to look in Orbis or consult specialist librarians for further lists of holdings!

 

Francis Bacon

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli

Robert Boyle

Tycho Brahe

Otto Brunfels

  • Catalogus illustrium medicorum, siue De primis medicinæscriptoribus, per Ot. Brvnnfelsivm. Argentorati, Apud I. Schottũ, 1530.
  • Herbarum vivae eicones ad naturae imitationem : sum̃[m]a cum diligentia & artificio effigiatae, una cum effectibus earundem, in gratiam veteris illius, & jamjam renascentis herbariae medicinae / per Oth. Brunf. recens editae M.D.XXXII ; quibus adjecta ad calcem, appendix isagogica de usu & administratione simplicium ; item index contentorum singulorum. Argentorati : Apud Joannem Schottu[m], 1532-36.
  • Neotericorvm aliqvot medicorum, in medicinam practicam introductiones ... Argentorati, 1533.
  • Iatrion medicamentorvm simplicium, continens remedia omnium morborum, quaetam hominibus quàm pecudibus accidere possunt ... Per Othonem Brunfelsium ... [Argentorati, 1533]
  • Onomasikon, seu Lexicon medicinae simplicis, Othonis Brvnrelsii primùm ingenio ... Addita uocum quarundam Germanica expositione, iuxta ueriorem Dioscoridis historiam ... Argentorati, I. Schottvs, 1543, [1544]Kreuterbüch contrafeyt beide Theil vollkommen nach rechter warer Beschreibung der alten Lerer vnnd Ärtzt / durch D. Ottho. Brunnfelss zusamen getragen vnnd Beschriben. Gedruckt zu Franckfůrdt am Mayn : Durch Herman Gülfferichen ..., 1546.

Giordano Bruno 

  • Giordano Bruno Nolano [electronic resource] : De l’infinito vniuerso et mondi. All’illustrissimo Signor di Maunissiero. Stampato in Venetia [i.e. London] : [J. Charlewood], M.D. LXXXIIII.[1584]
    • also original
  • Jordani Bruni Nolani De triplici minimo et mensvra ad trivm specvlatiuarum scientiarum & multarum actiuarum artium principia : libri V ad illustrib. & reierendis. principem ... Francofvrti : Apud Ioannem Wechelum & Petrum Fisherum ..., 1591.
  • Iordani Bruni Nolani De monade numero et figura liber consequens quinque de minimo magno & mensura : item de innumerabilibus, immenso, & infigurabili, seu, De vniuerso & mundis libri octo ... ad illustrissimum et reuerendiss Principem Henricum Iulium Brunsuicensium & Luneburgensium ducem ... Francofurti : Apud Ioan. VVechelum & Petrum Fischerum consortes, 1591.
  • Iordanvs Brvnvs Nolanvs De vmbris Idearvm. : Implicantibus artem, Quærendi, Inueniendi, Iudicandi, Ordinandi, & Applicandi: Ad internam scripturam, & non vulgares per memoriam operationes explicatis. Ad Henricvm III ... Protestatio ... Parisiis : Apud Ægidium Gorbinum, sub insigne Spei, è regione gymnasij Cameracensis, M.D.LXXXII.Cvm Privilegio Regis.
  • Philothei Iordani Bruni Nolani recens et completa ars reminiscendi et in phantastico campo exarandi [electronic resource] : ad plurimas in triginta sigillis inquirendi, disponendi, atque retinendi implicitas nouas rationes & artes introductoria. [London : Printed by J. Kingston and J. Charlewood, 1583?]

Nicolas Copernicus

  • Nicolai Copernici Toriensis De revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri VI: habes in hoc opere iam recens nato, & aedito, studiose lector, motus stellarum, tam fixarum, quàm erraticarum, cum ex ueteribus, tum etiam ex recentibus obseruationibus restitutos : & nouis insuper ac admirabilibus hypothesibus ornatos : habes etiam tabulas expeditissimas, ex quibus eosdem ad quoduis tempus quàm facillime calculare poteris : igitur eme, lege, fruere. Norimbergae : apud Ioh. Petreium, Anno 1543. Copious manuscript annotations of Johann Hommel and Johannes Praetorius. From the library of Petrus Saxonius. Autographs of Weinich Dorfstffe and Alfred North, Aug 1/89. Errata in ms. on leaf 196 verso.
  • De revolvtionibus orbium coelestium, libri VI ... Item, De libris revolvtionvm Nicolai Copernici Narratio prima per M. Georgium Ioachimum Rheticum ad D. Ioan. Schonerum scripta. Basileae, ex officina H. Petrina [1566]
  • Nicolai Copernici ... Astronomia instaurata : libris sex comprehensa, qui De revolutionibus orbium cœlestium inscribuntur : Nunc demum ... integritati suæ restituta, notisque illustrata, opera & studio D. Nicolai Mulerii. Amstelrodami : Excudebat VVilhelmus Iansonius, sub Solari Aureo, Año 1617.

Rene Descartes

  • Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison, & chercher la verité dans les sciences. Plus la dioptrique. Les meteores. Et la geometrie. Qui sont des essais de cette methode. Leyde, Jan Maire, 1637.
    • Also available in English [ A discourse of a method for the well guiding of reason, and the discovery of truth in the sciences.] and online.
  • Specimina philosophiae; seu, Dissertatio de methodo recte regendae rationis, & veritatis in scientiis investigandae: Dioptrice, et Meteora. Ex Gallico translata, & ab auctore perlecta variisque in locis emendata. Amstelodami, Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, 1644.
  • Lettres de Mr Descartes. Où sont traittées les plus belles questions de la morale, physique, medecine, et des mathematiques. A Paris : Chez Charles Angot ... à la ville de Leyden, 1657.
  • Geometria / à Renato Des Cartes anno 1637 Gallicè edita ; postea autem unà cum notis Florimondi de Beaune, in curia Blesensi consiliarii regii, Gallicè conscriptis in Latinam linguam versa, & commentariis illustrata ; operâ atque studio Francisci à Schooten, in Acad. Lugd. Batava metheseos professoris ; nunc demum ab eodem diligenter recognita, locupletioribus commentariis instructa, multisq́ue egregiis accessionibus, tam ad uberiorem explicationem, quàm ad ampliandam hujus geometriae excellentiam facientibus, exornata, quorum omnium catalogum pagina versa exhibet. Amstelædami [Amsterdam] : Apud Ludovicum & Danielem Elzevirios, MDCLIX-MDCLXI [1659-1661]
  • Renatus Des Cartes de homine, figuris, et latinitate donatus a Florentio Schuyl. Lvgdvni Batavorvm, 1662.
  • Passiones animæ / per Renatum Des Cartes : gallicè ab ipso conscriptæ, nunc autem in exterorum gratiam latina civitate donatæ ab H.D.M. i.v.l. Londini : Excudebat J.F. pro Jona Hart, Anno 1664.
  • Le monde de Mr. Descartes, ou, Le traité de la lumiere et des autres principaux objets des sens : avec un discours de l’action des corps, & un autre des fiévres / composez selon les principes du méme auteur. A Paris : Chez Michel Bobin & Nicolas le Gras, 1664.
  • L’homme de René Descartes. Et vn Traitté de la formation dv foetvs, dv mesme avthevr. Auec les Remarques de Lovys de La Forge, docteur en medecine, demeurant à la Fleche, sur le traitté de L’homme de René Descartes; & sur les figures par luy inuentées. A Paris, Chez Charles Angot, libraire iuré, ruë S. Iacques, au Lion d’or. M.DC.LXIV. Avec privilege dv roy.
  • Abregé de toutes les principales actions automatiques qui sont dans les hommes, avéque leurs maladies & leur guerison. Composé selon les principes de la méchaniique & de la philosophie de ... Descartes, repeté publiquement à Louvain sous ... Dorlix ... & traduit par D[e] R[ouvière].
  • Renati Des-Cartes Tractatus de formatione foetus, Gallicè primum editus, nunc autem Latinitate fruens. Lugd. Batav. & Amstelod. : Apud Danielem & Abrahamum & Adrianum à Gaesbeeck, 1672.
    • Also available in French.
  • Opuscula posthuma, physica et mathematica. Amstelodami, ex typographia P. & J. Blaev, 1701.

Leonard Fuchs

  • Paradoxorum medicinae libri tres, in quibus sanè multa à nemine hactenus prodita, Arabum aetatisq́ue nostrae medicorum errata non tantum indicantur, sed & probatissimorum autorum scriptis, firmissimisq́ue rationibus ac argumentis confutantur ... Obiter denique hic Sebastiano Montuo ... respondetur, ejusq́ue Annotatiunculae velut omnium frigidissimae prorsus exploduntur ... Basileae, Ex aedibus Jo. Bebelii, 1535.
  • De medendis singularum humani corporis partium a summo capite ad imos usque pedes passionibus ac febribus libri quatuor, nunquam antea in lucem editi ... Basileae [In officina Roberti Winter, 1539]
  • Methodvs sev ratio compendiaria perueniendi ad veram solidámque medicinam, mirificè ad Galeni libros rectè intelligendos vtilis, nunc recens in lucem aedita, Leonharto Fvchsio ... authore. Eivsdem De vsitata hvivs temporis componendorvm miscendorumque medicamentorum ratione libri III ... Parisiis, ex officina C. Gvillard, 1541.
  • De historia stirpium commentarii insignes : maximis impensis et vigiliis elaborati, adiectis earundem vivis plusquam quingentis imaginibus, nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem artificiosius effictis & expressis : ... / Leonharto Fuchsio ... autore ; accessit ijs succincta admodum uocum difficilium & obscurarum passim in hoc opere occurrentium explicatio ; unà cum quadruplici indice, quorum primus quidem stirpium nomenclaturas Graecas, alter Latinas, tertius officinis seplasiariorum & herbarijs usitatas, quartus Germanicascontinebit. Basileae [Basel] : In officina Isingriniana, anno Christi 1542.
  • De sanandis totivs hvmani corporis eiusdemq[ue] partium tam internis q[uam] externis malis libri V. / accurata diligentia conscripti, & nunc primum in lucé editi, Leonharto Fuchsio medico auctore. ; Obiter etiam in nuncupatoria epistola impudentissimum plagium Gualtheri Riffi Argentoracensis detegitur. Accessit quoq[ue] rerum & uerborum index locupletissimus. Venetiis. : Apud Andream Arriuabenum ..., 1543.

Galileo Galilei 

  • Le operazioni del compasso geometrico et militare / di Galileo Galilei. In Padova : In casa dell’autore, per Pietro Marinelli, 1606.
  • Siderevs nvncivs magna : longeqve admirabilia spectacula pandens ... quæ à Galileo Galileo ... perspicilli nuper à se reperti beneficio sunt obseruata in lvnæ facie fixis innvmeris lacteo circvlo stellis nebvlosis apprime verò in qvatvor planetis circa Iovis stellam ... circumuolutis : quos ... author ... Medicea sidera nvncvpando decrevit. Venetiis : Apud Thomas Baglionum, 1610.
  • Discorso al serenissimo don Cosimo II, gran dvca di Toscana : intorno alle cose, che stanno in sù l’acqua : ò che in quella si muouono / di Galileo Galilei. In Firenze : Appresso Cosimo Giunti, 1612.
  • Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidenti comprese in tre lettere scritte all’illvstrissimo signor Marco Velseri ... dal signor Galileo Galilei ... Si aggiungono nel fine le lettere, e disquisizioni del finto Apelle [Christoph Scheiner] In Roma, Appresso Giacomo Mascardi, MDCXIII.
  • Dialogo di Galileo Galilei Linceo matematico sopraordinario dello stvdio di Pisa : E filosofo, e matematico primario del serenissimo gr. dvca di Toscana : Doue ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo Tolemaico, e Copernicano; proponendo indeterminatamente le ragioni filosofiche, e naturali tanto per l’vna, quanto per l’altra parte ... Fiorenza, Per Gio: Batista Landini, 1632.
  • Systema cosmicvm / autöre Galilæi ... : in quo qvatvor dialogis, de duobus maximis mundi systematibus, Ptolemaico & Copernicano, vtriusq; rationibus philosophicis ac naturalibus indefinite propositis desseritur. Ex italica lingua latine conuersum. Accessit appendix gemina, qua SS. Scripturæ dicta cum terræ mobilitate conciliantur ... Avgvstæ Treboc[corum] [Strasburg] : impensis Elzeviriorvm, typis Davidis Havtti, 1635.
  • Discorsi e dimonstrazioni matematiche, intorno à due nuoue scienze attenenti alla mecanica & i movimenti locali, del Signor Galileo Galilei ... : Con vna appendice del centro di grauità d’alcuni solidi. In Leida : Appresso gli Elsevirii, 1638.
  • Dialogo di Galileo Galilei : ... Dove ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo Tolemaico, e Copernicano ... In questa seconda impressione accresciuto di una lettera dello stesso, non più stampata, e di varj trattati di più autori ... In Fiorenza [i.e. Napoli], 1710.
  • Mathematical discourses concerning two new sciences relating to mechanicks and local motion, in four dialogues. I. Of the resistance of solids against friction. II. Of the cause of their coherence. III. Of local motion, viz. Equable, and naturally accelerate. IV. Of violent motion, or of projects ... With an appendix concerning the center of gravity of solid bodies. Done into English from the Italian, by Tho. Weston ... and now publish’d by John Weston ... London, J. Hooke, 1730.

Samuel Hartlib

  • Cornu copia [electronic resource] : a miscellanium of lucriferous and most fructiferous experiments, observations, and discoveries, immethodically distributed, to be really demonstrated and communicated in all sincerity. [London : s.n., 1652?]
  • Chymical, medicinal, and chyrurgical addresses : made to Samuel Hartlib, Esquire. ... London : Printed by G. Dawson for G. Calvert, 1655.
  • The Hartlib papers [electronic resource] : [a complete text and image database of the papers of Samuel Hartlib (c. 1600-1662) held in Sheffield University Library, Sheffield, UK.]. Sheffield, UK : HROnline, Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield, c2002.

William Harvey

Johannes Kepler

  • Epitome astronomiae Copernicanæ : usitatâ formâ quæstionum & responsionum conscripta, in[que] VII. libros digesta, quorum tres hi priores sunt de doctrina sphæricâ ... / authore Joanne Kepplero. Lentijs ad Danubium : Excudebat Johannes Plancus, 1618-1622.
  • Prodromus dissertationvm cosmographicarvm, continens mysterivm cosmographicvm de admirabili proportione orbium coelestium continens mysterivm cosmographicvm de admirabili proportione orbium coelestium : deque causis coelorum numeri, magnitudinis, motuumque periodicorum genuinis & propiis, demonstratum per quinque regularia corpora geometrica. Libellus primum Tübingae in lucem datus anno Christi M. D. XCVI. / à M. Ioanne Keplero VVirtembergico, tvnc temporis illustrium styriae prouincialium mathematico. Nunc vero post annos 25. ab eodem authore recognitus, & notis notabilissimis partim emendatus, partim explicalia cognati argumenti opera, quae author ex illo tempore sub duorum Impp. Rudolphi & Matthiae auspiciis; etiamq́; in illustr. ord. Austriae supr-anisanae clientela diuersis locis editit. Francofvrti : Recusus typis E. Kemperi, sumptibus G. Tampachii, 1621. 
  • Ad vitellionem paralipomena, quibus astronomiae pars optica traditur; potissimum de artificiosa observatione et aestimatione diametrorum deliquiorumque solis & lunae. Cum exemplis insignium eclipsium : Habes hoc libro, lector, inter alia multa noua, tractatum luculentum de modo visionis, & humorum oculi usu, contra opticos & anatomicos ... Francofurti, 1604.

Edme Mariotte

  • Novvelle décovverte tovchant la vev̈e. Paris, Frederic Leonard, 1668.
  • The answer of Monsieur Mariotte to Monsieur Pecquet, : about the opinion, that the choroeides is the principal organ of sight ; communicated to the Publisher from Paris, and Englished as follows. London : [Printed by T.N. for J. Martyn Printer to the R. Society], 1670.
  • Traité du mouvement des eaux et des autres corps fluides. Divisé en v. parties. Par feu m. Mariotte ... Mis en lumiere par les soins de m. de La Hire ... Paris, E. Michallet, 1686.
    • A later English edition is available online.
  • Oeuvres de m. Mariotte, de l’Académie royale des sçiences; comprenant tous les traitez de cet auteur, tant ceux qui avoient déja paru séparément, que ceux qui n’avoient pas encore été publiés; imprimées sur les exemplaires les plus exacts & les plus complets; revûes & corrigées de nouveau. La Haye, Jean Neaulme, M,DCC,XL

Marcello Malpighi

John Napier

  • Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio [electronic resource] : ejusque usus, in utraque trigonometria; ut etiam in omni logistica mathematica, amplissimi, facillimi, & expeditissimi explicatio. Authore ac inventore, Ioanne Nepero, Barone Merchistonii, &c. Scoto. Edinburgi : Ex officinâ Andreæ Hart bibliopôlæ, M.DC.XIV. [1614]
    • Also available in English [ A description of the admirable table oe [sic] logarithmes].
  • Rabdologiæ, seu Numerationis per virgulas libri duo [electronic resource] : cum appendice de expeditissimo multiplicationis promptuario. Quibus accessit & arithmeticæ localis liber vnus. Authore & inventore Ioanne Nepero, Barone Merchistonii, &c. Scoto. Edinburgi : Excudebat Andreas Hart, 1617.
  • The bloody almanack : to which England is directed, to fore-know what shall come to passe, by that famous astrologer, M. John Booker : being a perfect abstract of the prophecies proved out of Scripture / by the noble Napier, Lord of Marchistoun in Scotland. London : Printed for Anthony Vincent, and are to be sold in the Old-Baily, 1643.

Isaac Newton

Santorio Santorio

  • De statica medicina. Aphorismorum sectionibus septem comprehensa. Accessit statico mastix sire ejusdem artis demolitio, Hippolyti Obicii ... Sumptibus Zachariae Schüreri & Matthiae Götzen. Lipsiae, G. Ritssch [1614]
  • Ars Sanctorii Sanctorii ... de statica medicina aphorismorvm [!] sectionibus septem comprehensa ... Venetiis, Apud Nicolaum Polum, 1614.
  • Methodi vitandorum errorum omnium qui in arte medica contingunt : libri quindecim, quorum principia sunt ab auctoritate medicorum & philosophorum principum desumpta, eaq́ue omnia experimentis, & rationibus analyticis comprobata : nunc primùm accessit eiusdem authoris de inventione remediorum liber / /Sanctorii Sanctorii. Genevae : P. Aubertum, 1631.
  • Commentaria in primam sen primi libri canonis Avicennae ... Venetiis : apud Iacobum Sarcinam, 1625.
  • Opera omnia ... [Venetiis, Apud Franciscum Brogiollum, 1660]

Evangelista Torricelli

Jean Baptist van Helmont

  • Tumulus pestis / authore Joanne Baptista van Helmont, toparcha in Royenborch, Pellines, etc. Coloniae Agrippinae : Apud Jodocum Kalcoven, 1644.
  • Opuscula medica inaudita. I, De lithiasi. II De febribus. III, De humoribus Galeni. IV, De peste. Coloniæ Agrippinæ : Apud Jedocum Kalcoven, 1644.
  • Febrium doctrina inaudita. Authore Joanne Baptista van Helmont... Coloniae Agrippinae, Apud J. Kalcoven, 1644.
  • Ortvs medicinae. Id est, Initia physicae inavdita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam. Avthore Ioanne Baptista van Helmont... Edente authoris filio, Francisco Mercvrio van Helmont, cum ejus praefatione ex Belgico tr. Amsterodami, Apud L. Elzevirium, 1648.
  • A ternary of paradoxes. : The magnetick cure of wounds. Nativity of tartar in wine. Image of God in man. / Written originally by Joh. Bapt. Van Helmont, and translated, illustrated, and ampliated by Walter Charleton, Doctor in Physick, and physician to the late King. London : Printed by James Flesher for William Lee, dwelling in Fleetstreet, at the sign of the Turks head, 1650 [i.e. 1649]
  • Deliramenta catarrhi, or, The incongruities, impossibilities, and absurdities couched under the vulgar opinion of defluxions / the author, that great philosopher, by fire, Joh. Bapt. van Helmont, &c. ; the translator and paraphrast Dr. Charleton ... London : Printed by E.G. for William Lee ... , 1650.
  • Oriatrike or, Physick refined. the common errors therein refuted , and the whole art reformed & rectified: being a new rise and progress of philosophy and medicine, for the destruction of diseases and prolongation of life. Written by ... John Baptista van Helmont... and now faithfully rendered into English ... by J.C. sometime of M.H. Oxon. London, Printed for L. Loyd, 1662.

Andreas Vesalius

Francois Viete

  • Francisci Vietæi opera mathematica [electronic resource] : in quibus tractatur canon mathematicus, seu ad triangula. Item Canonion triangulorum laterum rationalium: vnà cum vniuersalium inspectionum ad Canonem mathematicum, libro singulari. Londini : Apud Franciscum Bouuier, M.D.LXXXIX [1589]
  • Francisci Vietæ Opera mathematica, / in unum volumen congesta, ac recognita, operâ atque studio Francisci à Schooten ... Lvgdvni Batavorvm : ex officinâ Bonaventuræ & Abrahami Elzeviriorum, 1646.

Otto von Guericke

  • Ottonis de Guericke Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio primùm à R.P. Gaspare Schotto ... nunc verò ab ipso auctore perfectiùs edita, variisque aliis experimentis aucta. Quibus accesserunt simul certa quædam de aëris pondere circa terram; de virtutibus mundanis, & systemate mundi planetario; sicut & de stellis fixis, ac spatio illo immenso, quod tàm intra quam extra eas funditur. Amstelodami, apud J. Janssonium à Waesberge, 1672.

John Wallis

Miscellaneous Sources

  • Chiromancy, Henry Jones, mid 17th century. Manuscript on paper, in a single hand, consisting of notes on chiromancy, physiognomy, and dermatological moles and their significance. This work is largely abridged from Richard Saunders’ [1613-87?] Physiognomie, 1653. Dos-a-dos, a 19-chapter Latin work in multiple hands titled "Compendium Ethica."
  • Logicæ, ethicæ, ac physicæ compendium cum utilissima rhetorices adumbratione, 1609. Manuscript, on paper, in a single French cursive hand, of a philosophical and scientific compendium organized according to contemporary theories of the relationships among the main branches of knowledge. It opens with a self-contained treatise on rhetoric and its rules as a necessary precondition to all learning. The main part of the treatise, Rerum philosophicarum suavissima praelibatio, is a systematic exposition of all of the sciences. The author derives the principles of science from logic, and then proceeds to discuss physics, including the relationship among body, soul and mind; ethics; and cosmography, including astronomy and geography. The final description of the parts of the earth begins with the European countries and ends with notes on Africa and Asia.
  • Cosmographia docta & arqua[men]te ditada / por o padre mestre Ignacio Stafford lente de mathematica no collegio de S. Ant[on]io da companiha de Iesus ; escrita por Fr[ancisco] de Nelo, 1632. Manuscript on paper, in several hands, of Francisco de Nelo’s transcripts of lectures by Ignacio Stafford on cosmography, hydrography, navigation, and geographical principles. The majority of the text is concerned with navigation and hydrography, and discusses topics including winds, natural rhumbs, and various aspects of mapmaking. The volume is illustrated with over sixty technical diagrams and drawings of the zodiac.
  • Curiosae amoenitates ex abditis totius naturae arcanis de promptae. 1660s. Contains also : Tractatus de elementis ; Traitte de la chiromenacie ; Traitte de la physionomie ; Methode de faire divers horloges ; Compendium totius philosophiae ; Compendium et theorema philosophiae moralis.
  • Lecture on the scientific principles of Alfonso Borelli, [c. 1685] Holograph of a lecture Bianchini delivered to the society of the Aletofili. In it, Bianchini supports the theories of Alfonso Borelli concerning movement of parts of the body, praises modern scientists such as Galileo and Malpighi, and emphasizes the importance of the scientific method in the search for knowledge.